Evaluating Tenders 评标

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    20 Mar 2020: Punctuation standardised.

    3 Oct 2018: Added more details about arithmetical check and corrections.  Added error or discount calculations.

    24 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

    Tender analysis

    1. Check the completeness of tender submissions.
    2. Request for immediate submission of outstanding information (except when the outstanding information leads to disqualification).
    3. Check the correctness in completing the Form of Tender.
    4. Check the completeness of pages.
    5. Check the inclusion of amended pages and exclusion of deleted pages.
    6. Check no unauthorised alteration or erasure to the text of the Tender Documents.
    7. Check arithmetic: (revised 3 Oct 2018)
      • Evidence by ticking or correction in red
      • Tag any doubtful errors and verify with the senior before making any correction
      • Cross out the wrong text with the aid of a ruler, and write the corrected text in the space above so far as possible
      • Check corrections, evidenced by ticking in green
      • Tag doubtful corrections and verify with the first checker
      • Cross out incorrect corrections and correct tidily by the first checker in red, and tick by the second checker in green
      • Do not use correction ink or eraser.
    8. Consider when deciding whether to correct the rate or the extension in case of mismatch:
      • Rate derived by dividing quantities into extension reasonable as a round figure or as compared to similar rates?
      • Total of extension matching page total?
    9. Rates in Remeasurement Contract not to be changed and Tender Sum can be adjusted (some Conditions of Tendering specify as such).
    10. Check the reasonableness of quantities and sufficiency of items in the Schedule of Quantities and Rates prepared by tenderers.
    11. Treat omission of prime cost and provisional sums as an error to be absorbed by the Tenderer or to be corrected and added back (depending on the provisions of the Conditions of Tendering).
    12. Compile multiple rate bills (for easy comparison of rates and to serve as future data bank).
    13. Check rates:
      • Consistencies of rates for similar items (with differences for different locations and times of construction)
      • Reasonable differences and pattern for dissimilar items
      • High and low rates:
        • Comparison amongst tenders and pre-tender estimate
        • Comparison with known supply costs
        • Picking out those unreasonably high or low or incorrect rates for adjustments
      • Reasonable on-costs above prime cost rates
      • Inappropriate pricing of preliminaries items which should not normally be priced
      • Unreasonable dayworks rates and mark-ups.
    14. Check for front loading.
    15. Carry out discounted cash flow analysis for projects of long duration based on tenderers’ programme.
    16. Equate tenders with different completion times (normally using the rate of liquidated damages).
    17. Check qualifications.
    18. Check whether overall time of preliminary programme matches the committed completion times.
    19. Check obvious errors and omissions on the programme (though the detailed checking should be the duty of the Architect and Engineers).
    20. Check the materials and equipment proposal in so far as the make and type may affect the comments on the reasonableness of the prices (the technical suitability should be left to the Architect and Engineers).

    Calculate error or discount percentage

    (added 3 Oct 2018)


    1. Meaning:
      • Error = Priced figure less Corrected figure, not the other way around
        Error = Tender Sum less Corrected Total
    2. Error can be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve): 
      • Corrected Total plus (+ve/-ve) Error = Tender Sum
    3. In case of negative error:
      • Read as: Correct Total plus (-ve) Error = Tender Sum
      • Do not read as: Corrected Total minus Error = Tender Sum, which would cause confusion.
    4. Error% should be the one which when applied to the Corrected Total gives the Tender Sum, i.e.:
      • Corrected Total + Corrected Total x Error% = Tender Sum
    5. Always use the above to test the correctness of Error%.
    6. Therefore:
      • Error%
        = (Tender Sum - Corrected Total) / Corrected Total
        = Error / Corrected Total x 100%
    7. Example:
      • Priced figure = 100
        Corrected figure = 120
        Error = 100 - 120 = (-)20
        Error% = -20/120 x 100% = (-)16.66%
        Verification: 120 + 120 x (-)16.66% = 120 - 19.99 = 100.01, rounding error accepted


    1. "Error" above can be read as "Adjustment", where:
      • Adjustment = Final figure less Original figure, and the above calculations would apply
    2. Adjustment can be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve) :
      • Original figure plus (+ve/-ve) Adjustment = Final figure
        Adjustment% = Adjustment / Original figure x 100%
    3. If part of the Original figure is not subject to adjustment, then the Adjustment% would be:
      • Adjustment% = Adjustment / (Original figure - non-adjustable part) x 100%
    4. Verification:
      • Original figure + (Original figure - non-adjustable part) x Adjustment%
        = Original figure + (Original figure - non-adjustable part) x Adjustment / (Original figure - non-adjustable part) x 100%
        = Original figure + Adjustment x 100%
        = Final figure 


    1. The following are common understanding:
      • Discount = Discounted Price less Original Price (Discount is actually a negative number but read as "less ...")
        Original Price less Discount = Discounted Price ("less" is a short form for "plus (-ve)")
        Discount% = Discount / Original Price x 100%
    2. Discount is actually an example of (-ve) adjustment, but usually read as a positive number to be subtracted.
    3. Example:
      • Original Price = 120
        Discounted Price = 100
        Discount = 100 - 120 = (-)20, usually read as "less 20"
        Discount% = (-)20/120 x 100% = (-)16.66%, usually read "16.66% discount"
        Verification = 120 + 120 x (-)16.66% = 120 - 19.99 = 100.01, rounding error accepted

    Issuing Tender Questionnaires

    1. Request for outstanding submissions.
    2. Confirm correction of major arithmetic errors.
    3. Request for agreeing more reasonable rates for variations, with details as to how they will be applied – omissions and additions or additions only? implication on provisional quantities?
    4. Request for rationalization of both the quantities and rates in Schedule of Quantities and Rates prepared by the tenderers.
    5. Clarify uncertain terms.
    6. Request for withdrawal of unacceptable qualifications.
    7. Do not change Tender Sums if the tendering basis has not been changed, otherwise disqualify.
    8. Mark confidential queries and replies.

    Issuing Post Tender Addenda

    1. Issue if changes to the original tendering basis are required. Accept changes to the Tender Sums.
    2. Consider and stipulate the mode of submission and opening of the revised Tender Sums, if changes expected.
    3. Observe and respect individual tenderers’ competitive ideas.
    4. Keep confidential.

    Caution against changes to scanned images

    • There is software which can recognise the text on a scanned image of a document. Tenderers may use this kind of software and convert Tender Questionnaires or Post Tender Addenda to editable text files and input their answers. The format of the document may be changed making it difficult to trace whether the original text has been changed. To avoid this practice, the following statement should be inserted in Tender Questionnaires or Post Tender Addenda:
    You may use an image copy of the questionnaire and superimpose your answers on it, but should not change the text or format of the questionnaire.by converting the image into editable file or by other means.

    Typical contents of Tender Report

    1. Date tenders received.
    2. Tenders received:
      • Tenderers’ names
      • Tender Sums
      • Ratios
      • Completion Times
      • Alternative Tenders
    3. Scope of tenders:
      • Works tendered for
      • Provisional sums
      • Prime cost sums
      • Provisional quantities and dayworks schedule
      • Works by others
    4. Type of tenders
    5. Tender addenda
    6. Post tender addenda and revised tenders
    7. Tender submissions
    8. Time for completion
    9. Arithmetic errors
    10. Comparison of tenders in the form of appendices:
      • By Trades and by Sections
      • List of major rates
      • Multiple Rate Bills of Quantities (bound separately)
      • Technical particulars (delivery periods, origins, makes, types, models, etc. in so far as they are required for the appreciation of the reasonableness of the prices)
    11. Examination of tenders with comments on individual tenders:
      • Tender Sum
      • Priority
      • Contract periods
      • Arithmetic error
      • Technical submissions
      • Qualifications
      • Alternative proposal
      • General price levels
      • Items with unreasonably low rates
      • Items with unreasonably high rates
      • Items incorrectly priced
      • Unpriced items or items without specific prices quoted
      • Technical merits
      • Capabilities
      • Past performance
      • Items requiring further clarification
      • Conclusion.
    12. Reconciliation with Estimate.
    13. Conclusion and recommendation.
    14. Total building or project cost based on the recommended tender.
    15. Tender validity period.

    Tender interviews

    1. Better conducted after submission of the tender report.
    2. Strategy in priority of interview.
    3. Questions and answers.
    4. Subsequent confirmation of questions by issuing Tender Queries.
    5. After receipt of the replies, a final recommendation can be made as to the selection of the successful tenderer. A supplementary or a final tender report should be issued.

    Tender scoring

    1. Example of technical scoring sheet 技術分评分表的例子:
    2. Example of calculating the combined tender score 計算综合评分的例子:
    3. Formulae used:

    Tender Evaluation Criteria of Housing Authority

    1. The Housing Authority may take into account the following when evaluating tenders (Notes to Tenderers, February 2013 Edition):
      • tenderer's qualification
      • compliance with tender restrictions
      • suspension from tendering
      • workload capping limits and restrictions
      • contract award restrictions
      • technical, commercial and financial capability
      • past performance
      • compliance with tender conditions, specifications and other requirements as set out in the Tender Documents
      • designs/methods/materials proposed in compliance with the terms of the Conditions of Tender
      • tender price and/or rates
      • effect of exceptionally high or low priced items
      • effect of incident of payments by discounting future payments to obtain the present values if the tendered prices are very close
      • bankruptcy
      • false declaration
      • lack of integrity
      • acts of dishonesty
      • the latest available information and reports relating to serious misconduct or criminal offences
      • wages in arrears
      • serious quality, safety or environmental incidents
      • HA's quarantine system under the tender evaluation mechanism for occurrence of serious incidents during tender assessment for capital works contracts.
    2. Calculation of combined score by the Housing Authority for complex contracts evaluated using 2-envelope tendering arrangement with marking scheme (Special Conditions of Tender, February 2013 Edition):
      • Summation of:
        • 8% max. x Corporate score
        • 17% max. x PASS score
        • 10% x Technical Score of the tender (before normalization) / highest Technical Score among considered tenders
        • 65% x lowest tendered sum among considered tenders / tendered sum of the tender​
      • where "considered tenders" being those tenders with Technical Scores (before normalization) above the threshold Technical Score.

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