Tender Invitation 招标

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20/2/2023: Revised.

25/3/2020: Collecting Tender Documents, tender deposit and tender bond updated.

24/12/2014: Moved from wiki.

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Quantity Surveyors play a leading role in moving forward the tender invitation, tender analysis and contract award stages to ensure fair competition on a common basis.

(added, 20/2/2023)

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Selection of tenderers 投标者的选择

  1. Open tendering:
    • Invitation through newspaper advertising
    • Invitation through gazette notice with restrictions to approved list of tenderers
    • Invitation through web portal
    • Expression of interest and pre-qualification of tenderers required if tenderers are not invited from an approved list.
  2. Selective tendering:
    • From an approved list
    • Suggested by the Project Team
    • Pre-qualification of tenderers required if tenderers are not familiar to the Project Team or the nature of the Works is special to the criteria for the approved list
    • Expression of interest required to see whether the tenderers are willing and able to tender
    • Invitation by letter.
  3. Negotiation with a single tenderer:
    • Based on past project relationship and prices.
  4. Avoidance of collusion.
  5. Balance between transparency and confidentiality.
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Expression of interest and pre-qualification of tenderers 投标意向及资格预审

  1. Purposes:
    • Permit only those qualified to tender
    • Avoid incompetent tenderers submitting lowest tenders.
  2. Possible contents of a letter requesting for expression of interest:
    • Information to prospective tenderers:
      • Scope of the Project
      • Scope of the Works to be tendered for
      • Particulars of the Client and Employer for the project
      • Particulars of Architect, Engineers, AP, RSE, Quantity Surveyor
      • Type of contract:
        • Lump sum or remeasurement
        • With or without Bills of Quantities, or with standard schedule of rates
        • With or without fluctuation clause
      • Payment terms
      • Expected date for issuance of tender documents
      • Tendering period
      • Construction programme
    • General company information required to be submitted:
      • Descriptions on past and current experience in similar works, together with a job reference list
      • Current and anticipated work load for the coming 12 months
      • Experience in working on restricted areas similar to the proposed site
      • Business registration certificate
      • Certificate of incorporation, if a company
      • Contractor’s registration certificates
      • Audited accounts for the last <> years (strict confidence to be observed by the Client and the Consultants)
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Immigration Ordinance (Cap. 115) for last <> years
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59) for last <> years
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Employment Ordinance (Cap. 57) for last <> years
      • Statement of involvement in arbitration or litigation in the last <> years or foreseeable in the next <> months.
  3. Project specific information required to be submitted:
    • CV of key professional or technical staff which are capable of undertaking the Works and may be assigned to the Works
    • Details of the fabrication yards which may be used for the Works
    • Financial capability to adopt the payment terms mentioned above
    • Estimation of the delivery and installation periods required for the Works
    • If an alternative tender based on Contractor’s design is considered:
      • Descriptions of past experience and capability in undertaking the design work
      • Names of the prospective designers
      • Preferred tendering period
    • Time and mode of submission
    • Client is not bound to invite any contractors who have expressed interest to tender
    • Contact person in case of queries.
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Selection criteria 预审准则

  1. Technical and financial capability of the company.
  2. Technical capability of the proposed project staff.
  3. Past experience.
  4. Track records.
  5. Safety records.
  6. Non-compliance records.
  7. Current workload.
  8. Claims history (not apparent from the pre-qualification submissions).
  9. Off-site manufacture (e.g., MiC):
    • Similar criteria for manufacturers and their designers
    • Factory quality inspection, testing and certificates
    • Delivery and transportation schedule and logistics.
  10. Scoring by:
    • Qualitative judgment
    • Marking scheme.
  11. Scoring scheme disclosed or not disclosed to tenderers.

(revised, 20/2/2023)

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Invitation letter 邀请函

  1. Confidential list of tenderers.
  2. Invitation letter to be marked "CONFIDENTIAL"
  3. Description of the Works.
  4. Documents and drawings issued.
  5. Place and time for collection of documents and drawings.
  6. Arrangement for tender deposit and tender bond.
  7. Arrangement for tender briefing and site walk.
  8. Time and mode of submission.
  9. Tender submissions to be in sealed envelope marked "CONFIDENTIAL".
  10. Specified tender label or envelope for submission.
  11. Contact person in case of queries.
  12. (Terms and conditions intended to form part of the Contract should be given in the Tender Documents rather than in the Invitation Letter.)
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Tender Documents issued

  1. Tender Booklet.
  2. One set of drawings as listed or referred to in the Schedule of Drawings.
  3. One duplicate copy of the Tender Booklet for retention by the Tenderer (really essential?).
  4. One duplicate copy of the Form of Tender (really essential?).
  5. Electronic documents (precedence against hardcopies).
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  1. Tender Drawings comprising:
    • Drawings actually issued to tenderers
    • Drawings available for inspection
    • Standard Drawings referred to in the Specification or other Tender Drawings.
  2. Theoretically, BQ (Taking-off) Drawings = Tender Drawings = Contract Drawings.
  3. How to manage these drawings to avoid discrepancies.
  4. Generally, preliminary design drawings submitted by the tenderers to be for reference only.
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Collecting Tender Documents 领取招标文件

  • If a tender invitation is issued on Friday, whether the office will be open on Saturday should be stated to avoid encountering office closure.
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Tender deposit 投标工本押金

  1. Usually required by incorporated owners for renovation of buildings to compensate the printing costs of Tender Documents (including Drawings) collected by tenderers invited through open tendering with a slight effect of deterring tenderers not genuine to tender.
  2. Payable upon collection of Tender Documents.
  3. Usually refunded to unsuccessful tenderers who have submitted tenderers.
  4. Only the successful tenderer's tender deposit will not be refunded.
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Tender bond 投标担保书

  1. Intended to be submitted with the tender to guarantee that the tenderer will abide by the tender without withdrawal, otherwise the tender bond will be forfeited.
  2. Not usually required in Hong Kong.
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Inspection of Tender Documents 检查招标文件

  1. It may be possible (like in the old days) not to issue the full set of Tender Drawings to the tenderers. They would be required to come to the Architect's or the Quantity Surveyor's office to inspect the Tender Drawings by prior appointment.
  2. Tender Drawings nowadays are usually in electronic form and can therefore be given to the tenderers in full.
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Inspection of ground investigation reports

  1. It is also possible and more likely that ground investigation reports are not given to the tenderers. They would be required to come to the Architect's or the Quantity Surveyor's office to inspect the reports by prior appointment.
  2. Although ground investigation reports are usually made available to the tenderers for reference only with no admission of applicability, such reports are important references to the tenderers. It is available to give to the tenderers especially when the tenderers are required to provide foundation design proposals.
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Tender briefing and site walk 交底会及现场踏察

  1. Joint meeting or separate meeting to be decided.
  2. Confidentiality, convenience and trust to be ensured.
  3. Introduction to tenderers.
  4. Tenderers to raise queries and problems.
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Answering tender queries 提问答疑处理

  1. When answering individual tenderer's tender queries, re-phrase into common answers to all tenderers so that all are tendering on the same basis.
  2. Some tender queries may not be well written. Re-phrasing would be preferred.
  3. Issue as Tender Clarification Letters or Tender Addenda.
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Issuing Tender Addenda 修改通知

  1. Revisions may be required after issuing the Tender Documents because:
    • The Tender Drawings or Specification has been changed
    • The Bills of Quantities have not really been completed yet
    • Errors have been discovered.
  2. Latest time for issuing Tender Addenda.
  3. Revised or additional pages to be marked and labelled as follows: 
    • Marking with "*" against the page number to indicate first revision, with "**" to indicate second revision
    • Labelling at the page header or footer with "Tender Addendum No. 1".
      ​在页首或页尾加 "投标修改通知1" 的字样
  4. Highlighting of changes.
  5. Different dates and filenames on different pages to be avoided for documents.
  6. Date stamping required for Tender Drawings which do not usually have a corresponding revision version number.
  7. Covering letter:
    • Letter to be marked "CONFIDENTIAL"
    • Amended or additional documents and drawings issued
    • Description of the changes and instructions to make the changes (either in the letter or in an appendix)
      • Pages or sheets to be replaced, added or deleted
      • Clarification statements
    • Place and time for collection of documents and drawings
    • Any change to the tender return deadline
    • Other terms and conditions remain unchanged
    • Contact person in case of queries
    • Acknowledgement of receipt by couriers
    • Confirmation of incorporation of tender addenda by tenderers.

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