Knowledge Base 知識庫

Knowledge Base 知識庫 KCTang Thu, 22/03/2018 - 00:58
  1. This Knowledge Base is purely for the sharing of the knowledge of quantity surveying, and does not constitute as terms and conditions of our consultancy services. Our actual practice may vary to suit individual circumstances. This Knowledge Base shall not be used as evidence of practice and interpretations that we must adopt.
    此知識庫純粹用作分享工料測量的知識,並不構成為敝公司顧問服務的條件及條款。敝公司的實際做法可能因應個別情況而有所變化。此知識庫不能作為我司必須採用某做法及釋義的依據。
  2. This Knowledge Base was first published on Friday, 26th December, 2014 and was previously a WiKi site created on Thursday, 14th January, 2010.
    此知識庫首先於2014年12月26日星期六發布,之前是一個於2010年1月14日星期四建立的 Wiki 網頁

Quality Alerts 質量提示

Quality Alerts 質量提示 KCTang Wed, 04/11/2015 - 19:38

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Note

  • 4 Nov 2015: Created.

Where is the satisfaction?
滿足感在那裡?

  1. Winning the trust of clients, being consulted frequently
    客戶信任,時常諮詢
  2. Problem solved
    解決到問題
  3. Proper monitoring of prices, without unpleasant surprises to the clients
    造價跟蹤管理得宜,不出客戶意料之外
  4. Considered fair and reasonable by both the Employers and the Contractors
    發包方及承包方都覺得公平合理

Invisible hand
無形的手

  1. Always be prepared to be audited by a third party
    隨時準備有第三者審計
  2. Professional misconduct would cause damage to the Company not compensable by professional liability insurance
    專業失當就算有保險都不能補償對公司造成的破壞

Treating the counter-parties
對待對手

  1. Fair
    公平
  2. Reasonable
    合理
  3. Non-corruptive
    廉潔

Attending meetings
開會

  1. Be prepared
    要有準備
  2. Watch out deportment
    注意儀態良好
  3. Refrain from smoking
    不要抽煙
  4. Present oneself appropriately
    洽當表現自已
  5. Should not keep silence without contribution
    不要默不作聲毫無貢獻
  6. Should not speak unnecessarily
    不作無謂發言
  7. Say “To check and reply” if necessary cannot answer
    真的不會答時, 不怕答“容後補答”、“要查證再覆”

Estimates for maintenance and renovation
維修裝修估算

  1. Estimates for maintenance and renovation may place greater emphasis on classification by locations. It is not appropriate to classify items under them according to so many elements used for new works, but structured levels are still necessary to facilitate easier reading and understanding. Therefore, the items can be grouped and listed as follows (the locations may be classified before or after them but should not be too trivial):
    維修裝修估算項目比較著重按地方分類,之下不宜再如新建工程的分部分得那麼多,但又要有層次,便於閱讀理解,故可分類排列如下(地方可先分或後分但不宜太瑣碎):
    • Scaffolding
      棚架
    • Removal of existing
      移除現有
    • Walls, Windows and Doors
      牆窗門
    • Fittings
      裝置
    • Finishes (no need to put under headings of floor, wall and ceiling)
      裝飾 (之下不必分地面、牆面、天棚等標題)
    • M&E
      機電
  2. Schedule of Works should be similar
    工程項目清單亦是這樣

Measurement of quantities
計量

  1. Do not rely too much on on-screen measurement of cad or pdf files because there is no record of what have been measured and no detailed breakdown
    不要太依賴用cad或pdf檔 在螢幕計工程量,因計了那裡都無紀錄,又無細數
  2. Use hardcopy and dimensions to measure or use scale where necessary in case of no dimensions
    用紙張件及標示尺寸計算或在無標示尺寸時用尺量
  3. Colour on the hardcopy to indicate extent measured
    在紙張件著色識認計算了那裡

Price information
價格資訊

  1. Build-up a database
    建立資料庫
  2. Collect directive circulars and prices published by Government and authorities
     收集政府、權力機構的指令性通知、價格
  3. Collect market prices through other commercial sources (i.e. cost software vendors)
    收集其他商業渠道的市場價格(例如造價軟件公司)
  4. View newspapers, periodicals, internet
    檢閱報章、期刊、互聯網
  5. Collate internal information
    整理自身的資料
  6. Analyse content ratios and unit costs of past projects
    分析過往工程含量及單位造價
  7. Obtain through tendering
    通過招投標取得

Cash flow table
資金流量表

  1. Use horizontal table with a chart
    盡量使用橫式有圖表那個款
  2. Include complete remarks
    要加齊註釋

Standard documents
標準文件

  1. Use standard documents/templates to prepare fee proposals, tender documents, tender reports and other documents, but may refer to other projects for useful changes
    要用標準文件編寫顧問費報價、招標文件、投標分析報告及其他文件,但可參考其他工程有用的改動
  2. Do not adapt from other projects, unless really appropriate, but should check  the standard documents for any updates
    不要直接用其他工程的改, 除非真的合適,但仍要核對標準文件有無最新的改動

Lead in water problem
鉛水問題

  • Check tender documents for expressions using lead, and check with the designers whether this is appropriate
    檢查招標文件有無用鉛的字句,及與設計單位了解是否適合

Insurance provisions in tender documents
招標文件保險條款

  1. Ensure that the name list of the joint-insured as specified in the Contractors’ All Risks and Third Party Liability insurance provisions is comprehensive; apart from the Employer, the Contractor and sub-contractors of all tiers, note whether the list should include:
    確保規定工程一切險及第三者責任險的條款的聯名被保險人的名單齊全;除發包方丶承包方及各層分包方外,還要注意是否要加入:
    • the Building Manager (being a manager of the relevant properties, he may be held liable)
      物業管理人(因他為相關物業的管理人,可能被追討責任)
    • other contractors employed by the Employer (because their works will be carried out currently with the Works, and the liability for accident may not be clearly separable)
      發包方聘用的其他承包商(因其工程與本工程同時執行,意外責任未必能分得清)
    • consultants (because they are not directly performing the Works, and the insurances can only cover risks caused by the performance of the Works, therefore, it is doubtful whether they should be included as one of the joint-insured) 
      顧問(因他們不是直接執行工程者,而保險只保障執行工程所造成的風險,因此,把他們作為聯名被保險人之一的效用存疑)
  2. Adjust the old term “separate specialist contractor” to match the term used in the new Standard Forms of Contract
    調整“separate specialist contractor”這舊有叫法以符合新標準合同的叫法
  3. State the values of their works for inclusion as part of the sum insured to avoid inadequate insurance cover
    列出他們的工程金額,作為保額的一部分以免保額不足
  4. State expressly work outside boundaries to avoid lack of insurance cover
    特別列出工地外的工程以免保險範圍甩漏
  5. Include in the amount of removal of debris the costs of demolition of building, hoardings (if not included in the present contract), scaffolding for demolition, etc; review whether the $1M stated in the standard documents are adequate and adjust as appropriate
    計算保險的殘礫清理保額時要包括拆樓、圍街板(假設本合同價未包括圍街板)及拆樓用的棚架;檢討標準文件寫的100萬元是否足夠及作適當的修改
  6. State the values of the previous works such as foundations and hoardings for inclusion as part of the sum insured under the material damage section to ensure full cover; alternatively, if the risk of total loss is low, insure as the principal’s properties under the third party liability section, but the limit of indemnity will be lower
    列出之前的工程,例如基礎、圍街板等的價值,加入物質損壞保險的保險額內以取得全額保;或者,如全毀的風險低,可以作為工程委託方的財産形式在第三者保險部份受保,但賠償額較低

Preparing Bills of Quantities or Schedule of Rates
編寫工程量清單或單價表

  1. Read the Standard Method of Measurement, whether you are experienced or not; do not just listen to other people
    任何時間都要睇工程量計算規則,無論生手定熟手,不要光聽人講
  2. Note concrete mix, beam depth stages, height stages, edges, shoulders, straight / sloping / curved, etc.
    計混凝土工程時要注意混凝土的標號、樑深的層級、高度的層級、邊沿、接肩、直斜彎,等等!
  3. Do not blindly follow past Bills of Quantities or Schedule of Rates because they may have simplified the measurement which may not be applicable to every project, and may in fact be wrong
    不能盲目照跟舊有的工程量清單或單價表因為它們可能把計法簡化了,但此不是單單工程都合用,而其實可能根本就錯了,

Preliminaries Bills
開辦營運費清單

  • Draw horizontal lines to separate items in Preliminaries Bills containing clause headings only to enable entry of prices in alignment with the item descriptions
    用橫線把只列條款標題的開辦營運費清單內的項目間開以便填寫價格時對齊項目說明

Documentary exchange with tenderers
與投標者的來往文件

  • Keep the hardcopies and softcopies of documents, correspondence, faxes and emails exchanged during tendering under a separate folder for each tenderer to enable easy tracking and compilation of contract documents
    把招投標標的 所有來往文件、信件、傳真及電郵的打印或電子件按每一投標者分開歸檔,以便追蹤及製作合同文件

Tender clarification queries
詢標問卷

  • Clarify in the tender clarification queries only those incorrectly priced high or low rates, not comparatively high or low rates
    在詢標問卷應只問錯誤地高或低的單價,而不是相對高或低的單價

Financial reports
最終造價估算報告

  1. Estimated Amount = Reasonably estimated maximum amount for budgetary purposes
    估計價 = 合理估計的最大金額,供投資預算用
  2. First Claimed Amount = Amount initially claimed or the biggest amount claimed by the Contractor
    原報價 = 承包商第一次或最大的一次的報價
  3. Latest Claimed Amount = Latest revised amount claimed by the Contractor, or the current amount after negotiated reduction
    最新報價 = 承包商最新的修訂報價,或通過談判應已減低了的金額
  4. Assessed Amount = Amount accurately or roughly assessed to be comfortably payable finally, in other words, the minimum final amount payable
    審核價 = 經準確或大約計算得的可安心作為最終應付的總額,亦即等如最低的最終應付總額
  5. When Assessed Amount = Claimed Amount, Estimated Amount should also be = Assessed Amount
    當審核價 = 報價時,估計價亦應 = 審核價
  6. In the final stage of final account, the Estimated Amount should be smaller than the Claimed Amount
    到結算後期,估計價應低於報價

Approximately
大約

  • Write “approximately X Nos.” instead of  “approximate X Nos.”
    寫成“approximately X Nos.” 而不是  “approximate X Nos.”

Replace by or with
更換

  • “replace by” or ”with” may be distinguished by this example: in “replace A by B with C”, A is the replaced, B is the one who takes action, and C is the substitution
    “replace by”定”with” 可以此例子分辨:”replace A by B with C” 中A是被更換者、B 是行動者、C是代替者

Final account item descriptions
結算項目說明

  1. Note that if the words "revise", "change", "replace" and similar are used in the final account item descriptions, cost omission and addition are both expected
    注意當”修改”、”改變”、”更換”等類似用詞在結算項目說明使用時,意味應同時有減帳及加帳
  2. Make sure that the final account item descriptions are consistent with the cost effects
    確保結算項目說明是與費用影響匹配

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Personnel Organisation 人員編制

Personnel Organisation 人員編制 KCTang Sat, 20/12/2014 - 19:01

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Note

20 Dec 2014: Moved form wiki.

Personnel organisation to consider
人員編制要考慮

  1. How many people
    要多少人
  2. Types and number of professional personnel
    專業人員的類別及人數
  3. Types and number of supporting personnel
    輔助人員的類別及人數
  4. Continuing learning
    持續學習

Kind of persons to employ
請什麼類形的人

  1. Enduring
    克苦
  2. Hard working
    實幹
  3. Attentive to details
    細心
  4. Highly analytical
    分析力強
  5. Eager to learn
    肯學習
  6. Able to use computer
    會用電腦
  7. Able to use common office software
    會用常用的辦公室軟件
  8. Literate in Chinese and English
    具中英語文能力

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Administrative Management 行政管理

Administrative Management 行政管理 KCTang Fri, 30/07/2021 - 17:35

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Note​​​​​​​

  • 30 Jul 2021: "Use of recycled paper" added.
  • 13 Jul 2021: "Sending back source files" added.
  • 7 Jul 2021: "Use of emails" expanded. "Filing of letters and emails" added.
  • 7 Apr 2019: "Issuing Tender Documents just before holidays" added.

Issuing Tender Documents just before holidays 
臨假期前出標
​​​​​​​

  1. If  issuing Tender Documents on Friday, remind the tenderers that our office is closed on Saturday and not available for collection of documents.
    若星期五出標,提醒投標者敝公司星期六不辦公、不要到取文件。
  2. If issuing Tender Documents just before the Chinese New Year Holidays, ensure that the tendering period can accommodate the different lengths of holidays of the tenderers and their suppliers and factories. Factories usually close for longer time than the public holidays.
    若臨農曆年假前出標,確保投標期可以包容投標者及他們的供應商及工廠的不同的假期長度。工廠通常放假較公眾假期長。

Office appliances 
辦公用具

  1. Paper
    紙張
  2. Printer
    打印機
  3. Photocopier
    影印機
  4. Scanner
    掃描器
  5. Binding machine
    釘裝機
  6. Telephone
    電話
  7. Fax machine
    傳真機
  8. Broadband connection
    寬頻接線
  9. Internet service
    互聯網服務
  10. Intranet
    內聯網
  11. Computer
    電腦
  12. Client software
    客戶機軟件
    • office automation
      辦公
    • pdf and compression
      pdf 及壓縮
    • CAD and BIM
      繪圖及立體資訊模擬
    • server software
      伺服器軟件
    • File server
      檔案伺服器
    • Email server
      電郵伺服器
    • Web server
      網頁伺服器

Passwords 
密碼

  1. Unless authorized, do not watch, memorize or use passwords used by the Company to assess internal or external websites
    未獲授權不應觀看、記下及使用公司使用的內外網站的密碼
  2. Do not disclose passwords used by the Company to outside persons
    不得對外人披露公司使用的密碼

Fax machine setting 
傳真機的設定

  1. Set time clock
    設定時鐘
  2. Set sender’s identity
    設定發送者的識別

Printer driver 
影印機的驅動程式

  1. Do not install those provided by Windows
    不要安裝Windows 提供的
  2. Install those provided by the printer companies
    安裝打印機公司提供的
  3. Copy the file saved in the “Installation Sources” folder in the server to the local computer, install, set to use A4, black and white, single sided and recycled paper, and delete the file after successful installation
    把存儲在伺服器”Installation Sources”檔案夾內的安裝檔抄到自己電腦,安裝,設定用A4、黑白、單面、再用紙,裝後刪除安裝檔

Protocol when answering phone calls 
接聽電話的禮儀

  1. Answer first with company name or own name
    先報上公司名稱或自已名稱
  2. Proactively answer calls unattended, write down name of caller, company name, contact number, and relevant project or matter, and pass the note to the relevant person
    主動代接無人接聽的電話,並寫低來電者名稱、公司、聯絡電話、相關的工程或事項,交給有關人員跟進回覆

Use of recycled paper

  1. Recycle paper which has been printed on one page only.
  2. Only recycle paper which is in good conditions and does not have stamped marks on the printed page visible on the blank page.
  3. Use recycled paper to print emails and drafts not intended for sending out as hardcopies.
  4. Do not send out recycled paper to other parties because it may contain confidential information.
  5. Put recycled paper in the standby storage boxes and printer trays following the facing directions indicated at the standby storage boxes or printers.
  6. Inspect the recycled papers to be free of staples and in the correct directions before putting them in the printer trays.
  7. So put the recycled paper in the printer trays that the previously printed page will be on the back and upside down. 
  8. Draw a diagonal line on the last back page of such recycled paper in a document.
  9.  Draw a diagonal line on each of the back pages of those recycled paper which have not been turned upside down.
  10. Note that recycled pages which do not have the previously printed pages turned upside down will cause confusion when reading and when the document is to be scanned in the future.

(Added, 30 Jul 2021)

Use of emails 
電郵的使用

Generally

  1. Follow the template for folder structure under the email Data folder to create new folder structure for new jobs.
    參照Data電郵夾下的電郵夾結構模板” template for folder structure” 的概念把所有工程的電郵夾分類及統一名稱
  2. Delete spam emails on sight, to reduce everybody’s abortive time to read (permanent clearance from the Deleted Items folder will be done by the Administrator).
    一見垃圾電郵就立刻刪除,以免人人都要花時間看(從刪除郵件夾永久刪除由管理員做)
  3. Ignore all emails received from time to time calling for security verification regarding iTune, Apple ID, Microsoft, PayPal, HSBC, etc. since they are mostly malicious emails.
    千祈不要理會不時收到的關於iTune、 Apple ID、Microsoft、PayPal、HSBC 等等要人重新輸入認證的電郵,黑郵居多
  4. Do not open or save attachments received from unknown persons, and do not click open links.
    不要打開或儲存來自不認識的人的附件,亦不要打開連結

Sending emails

  1. bcc all outgoing emails back to our office.
  2. Check that the bcc copies are received by our office to prove that the outgoing server is working.
  3. Check that there are no delivery failure message (should appear within 5 minutes) to prove that the delivery is successful.
  4. Handle any delivery failure immediately by contacting the intended recipient for the proper address, and re-send with a remark "Re-sent due to delivery failure", cc all others on the original email to make them know.
  5. For urgent email failed to be delivered after retry or failure to contact the intended recipient, fax the email copy to his/her company with a remark "Faxed due to email delivery failure" and the date. Email the front page back to the office. 
  6. Email source files (Word, Excel, etc.) back to our office after sending out pdf files. Mark at the beginning "Source files attached".

Correspondence not by emails

  1. All outgoing and incoming documents not sent by email should be emailed back to our office for the record.

    Printing frequency

    1. Print all emails once every half-an-hour as far as possible.
    2. Print before lunch break all emails received before 12 am.
    3. Print before close of a day's work all emails received before 5 pm.
    4. Print upon starting a day's work all emails received before that.

    Persons responsible for printing

    1. ​​​​​​​In principle, all are responsible for printing the emails of their own projects.
    2. Assign more junior or newly joined staff members to print emails for a team of staff members.
    3. Assign a person as the final guard to remind all others to print their emails by the 12 am and 5 pm deadlines, and print all remaining emails not falling within the scope of the any particular team.
    4. The above principle still applies if a clerk is employed to do the printing.

    Printing

    1. Print the newly received pages of the emails only, i.e., excluding linked pages of past emails which have been received before.
    2. Print on one-sided recycled paper. (One-sided printout will be easier for reading and future scanning for archiving.)
    3. Print on double-sided paper only when required by the surveyor responsible.
    4. Print the one with track-changes if both Word or Excel and pdf files are received.

    Not to print

    1. ​​​​​​​Delete spam emails.
    2. Delete promotional emails not relevant to our industry, profession or business.
    3. Do not delete nor print promotional emails relevant to our industry, profession or business. File them under their relevant folders, if available, otherwise under "Sales Promotion".
    4. Permanent deletion from the Trash folders should only be made by the director.
    5. Do not print documents which are too thick, say more than 30 pages. Ask the surveyor responsible to see whether the thick documents should be printed.

    Emailed copies of faxes

    1. Treat emailed copies of faxes similarly.
    2. Convert emailed copies of faxes to proper emails by forwarding each email with attached fax back to the office but stating a proper subject title and inserting an image of the first page in the email beforehand.
    1. Do not download from links sent by unknown senders for unknown purposes. Check with the senders if in doubt.
    2. Download ALL documents received through genuine links and and email them back to our office for the record.
    3. Email ALL documents sent out through links back to our office for the record.
    4. Split them into several emails if the file size is too large.

    Emails attached to emails

    1. Save emails attached to an email received on to the computer desktop and move them back to the email folder. They will appear at the positions of their original email dates. This would enable reading the story in a chronological order, and easy tracing later.
    2. Print such emails like other emails.

    Handling of printed emails

    1. When there are more than one attachment, identify whether they belong to one submission or several submissions each bearing its own serial number or date (e.g., letters, site memos, proposed variations, instructions, variation quotations, payments, minutes, regular reports, etc.).
    2. Separate between different submissions by staples or clips.
    3. Arrange different submissions according to the dates stated on them (not the dates received).
    4. Within the same submission, arrange the attachments in logical sequence, usually covering letter or site memo at the front and drawings at the back. Descriptive documents are usually in the middle. Summaries may be put before or after the details depending on the authors. Follow the specific contents page or the list of items stated in the email. Do not follow the order of the attachments to the email because they have no logical sequence. 
    5. Fold thin A3 attachment (say, not exceeding 5 pages) forward from right to left along the centre line into A4 size, and then fold the top flap from left to right along the centre line into half A4 size. 
    6. Fold thick A3 attachment backward from right to left keeping the edge clear from the left punch holes.
    7. Stamp the date received on the top right hand corner of each separate submission received (but no need for different parts of the same submission which are not supposed to be taken out for use separately).
    8. Stamp the date received on the top right hand corner on each programme and on the bottom right hand corner on each drawing because they may be filed or taken out for use separately.
    9. Mark near the date chop the relevant instruction numbers.
    10. Stamp neatly and clearly at a blank space.
    11. Do not stamp on submissions emailed by our office unless they are returned with emails received.
    12. Write on the emails simple reference numbers and dates of those separate submissions which are filed not immediately after the relevant emails to enable future tracing.
    13. Initial neatly on the bottom left corners of the emails after arranging the emails and attachments.
    14. File the emails directly in the appropriate email sub-folders of the relevant projects.
    15. If the emails are printed by somebody other than the relevant team members, file the emails under the "00Printed" email folder for subsequent filing by the relevant team members. 
    16. Distribute the printed emails once every half-an-hour to the relevant project team members for reading.
    17. Circulate within the relevant team starting from the director to the assistant. If any person is absent, pass on to the next one present.
    18. Read and initial on the top right hand corners of the emails and the first pages of separate submissions.
    19. Take immediate actions as required by the emails.
    20. File the emails in the relevant hardcopy folder after all team members have read and initialled and when no further immediate action is required.
    21. File different submissions according to their dates even though those dates may be sometime in the past so that they can tell the complete story when the files are read sequentially sometime later. The date received stamp can help to trace that emails sending them though the submission and the email may be filed separately.​​​​​​

    Filing of letters and emails

    1. Create a separate folder section for each preliminary cost estimate, proposed instruction, confirmation of verbal instruction, formal instruction, other item to appear in the final account (e.g., group of provisional quantities, provisional sum), financial report, payment valuation, etc.
    2. Name the email folders or label the hardcopy folder flysheets by their serial numbers.
    3. If an email covers more than one folder section, email it back to the office with a note added to the subject so as to distinguish. Do not just make copies because identical copies will be deleted if a "remove duplicate" check is done.
    4. File requests for estimates and estimates under the proposed instruction folders. Move them to the formal instruction folders after the issuance of the formal instructions.
    5. Move confirmations of verbal instructions to the formal instruction folders after the issuance of the formal instructions.
    6. Change the folder or label names to reflect or track the move.
    7. File quotations and assessment related to a formal instruction under the same folder section, i.e., all matters related from cost estimate until agreement are to be filed together to tell the complete story.
    8. Spilt into more folders if an instruction covers more than one variation or final account item.
    9. Update the financial report descriptions and amounts to match whenever a new or revised quotation or assessment is received or issued.
    10. File communications with each tenderer separately. This is important for tracking the development, preparing the letter of award/intent, and contract binding.
    11. In principle, all incoming and outgoing documents in the email folders and hard copy folders should mirror each other, except for working documents not sent out.
    12. Bind tender documents as a book, not to be filed.

    Use of WhatsApp 
    短信的使用

    1. Read Company chat group regularly.
    2. Reply immediately upon receipt of messages relating to self or all people, whether within or outside office hours.
      在公司群組收到關於自已或關於全部人的短訊要即覆
    3. Report after completion of the task.
      在事件完成後要報告
    4. Delete messages after completion of the task.
    5. Learn from others' messages to avoid committing the same mistakes and to adopt good practice.
    6. Delete non-relevant messages not worth keeping.

    Revit

    1. Use the License Transfer Utility provided by Revit to transfer Standalone License from one computer to another computer without infringing the license
      使用Revit提供的許可證轉移工貝(License Transfer Utility)把單機許可證從一部電腦, 轉移到另一部機而不違反許可證
    2. Use Revit 2015 because some outside companies still use Revit 2013 or 2014 and models of new version cannot be converted back to older versions
      使用Revit 2015版,此乃因為外面有些公司仍只用Revit 2013或2014版,但新版本的模型不能改回舊
    3. Use Revit 2015 for trial
      2016版屬試用

    Documentary system 
    文書機制

    1. Use standard documents and templates
      使用標準檔、範本
    2. Implement file management
      執行檔案管理
    3. State file names, reference numbers, project names, contract names, subjects
      註明檔案名稱、編號、項目名稱、合同名稱、主旨
    4. State date of receipt or dispatch, and affix acknowledgement chop
      註明收發的日期及蓋簽收章
    5. Carry out  internal check
      執行內部審核
    6. Double-check after printing
      列印後要覆核
    7. Double-check after calculating
      計算後要覆核
    8. Double-check after transferring figures
      搬移數字要覆核
    9. Check quantities and rates
      覆核數量、單價

    File compression 
    檔案壓縮

    • Set Winrar to use zip format to enable users who do not have Winrar to open (Windows file explorer can open zipped files)
      把Winrar 檔的格式設定為zip方便沒有Winrar的人打開(Windows file explorer可打開zipped 檔

    Generate pdf file from Word file 
    Word 檔轉換成 pdf檔

    • 按以下優先次序以減少檔案大小:
      • Print CutePDF (如有)
      • Print - Save as Adobe PDF (如有)
      • Print - Adobe PDF (如有)
      • Export
      • Save as

    Travelling expense 
    交通費

    • State the destination on all taxi fare receipts for the record
      在 所有的士單據上列明目的地,以作記錄

    Use of toilets 
    衛生間的使用

    1. Use the toilet roll plastic wrapper after unwrapping as the base cushion to the toilet roll to avoid wetness and reduce dirt
      把廁紙膠套在剝除後用作廁紙的座墊,以便防濕及減髒
    2. Place a new roll as reserve when the toilet roll is about to be used up
      廁紙接近用完,主動取放一卷作後備

    End of Page

    Hong Kong Quantity Surveyors and Mainland Cost Engineers 香港工料測量師及內地造價工程師

    Hong Kong Quantity Surveyors and Mainland Cost Engineers 香港工料測量師及內地造價工程師 KCTang Wed, 11/03/2020 - 18:02

    Go to End

    Note

    11 Mar 2020: Updated.

    20 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

    Quantity Surveyor

    • Is a construction cost and contract consultant.
    • Originated in Britain as a profession.

    Nicknames of Quantity Surveyor

    • “cost engineer” as used in the mainland China and the USA.
    • “construction cost manager” to recognize his expertise in managing construction costs.
    • “construction contract specialist” to recognize his expertise in understanding the law of contracts, the standard forms of construction contracts, and giving advice accordingly to other project team members.
    • “construction economist” to recognize his expertise in understanding construction cost factors, variables, and impacts.
    • “risks manager” to recognize his ability to draft contract and cost clauses to present the risks clearly to help tenderers submit adequate prices, and reduce post contract surprise claims and disputes.
    • “lubricant” (my own invention) to recognize his skill in providing fair and reasonable cost and contractual advice to resolve deadlocks which may exist between other project team members on opposite sides of the table.

    Professional Bodies which include Quantity Surveyors and Cost Engineers (or their Professional Bodies) as Professional Members

    1. The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors (HKIS)
    2. Africa Association of Quantity Surveyors (AAQS)
    3. Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International (AACE)
    4. Association of Cost Engineers (ACostE)
    5. Association of South African Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS)
    6. Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (AIQS)
    7. Brazilian Institute of Cost Engineers (IBEC)
    8. Building Surveyors Institute of Japan (BSIJ)
    9. Canadian Association of Consulting Quantity Surveyors (CACQS)
    10. Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (CIQS)
    11. Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB)
    12. Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors (ICES)
    13. China Cost Engineering Association (CCEA)
    14. Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE)
    15. Conseil Européen des Economistes de la Construction (CEEC)
    16. Consejo General de la Arquitectura Técnica de España (CGATE)
    17. Dutch Association of Quantity Surveyors (NVBK)
    18. European Federation of Engineering Consultancy Associations (EFCA)
    19. Fédération Internationale des Géomètres (FIG)
    20. Fiji Institute of Quantity Surveyors (FIQS)
    21. Ghana Institution of Surveyors (GhIS)
    22. Ikatan Quantity Surveyor Indonesia (IQSI)
    23. Indian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (IIQS)
    24. Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET)
    25. Institute of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya (IQSK)
    26. Institute of Quantity Surveyors Sri Lanka (IQSSL)
    27. Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE)
    28. Institution of Surveyors of Kenya (ISK)
    29. Institution of Surveyors of Uganda (ISU)
    30. International Cost Engineering Council (ICEC)
    31. Italian Association for Total Cost Management (AICE)
    32. Korean Institution of Quantity Surveyors (KIQS)
    33. Fachverein für Management und Ökonomie im Bauwesen (maneco)
    34. New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors (NZIQS)
    35. Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (NIQS)
    36. Pacific Association of Quantity Surveyors (PAQS)
    37. Philippine Institute of Certified Quantity Surveyors (PICQS)
    38. Property Institute of New Zealand (PINZ)
    39. Real Estate Institute of Botswana (REIB) Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)
    40. Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS)
    41. Royal Institution of Surveyors Malaysia (RISM)
    42. Singapore Institute of Building Limited (SIBL)
    43. Singapore Institute of Surveyors and Valuers (SISV)
    44. Sociedad Mexicana de Ingeniería Económica, Financiera y de Costos (SMIEFC)
    45. Society of Chartered Surveyors Ireland (SCSI)
    46. Union Nationale des Economistes de la Construction (UNTEC)

    Major Types of Employers of Quantity Surveyors in Hong Kong
    香港顧問工料測量師的主要僱主類別

    • Consultant quantity surveying practices  工料測量顧問公司 (as directors, partners, or quantity surveyors of different grades)
    • Contractors 承建商 (as directors, commercial managers, contract managers, quantity surveying managers, or quantity surveyors of different grades)
    • Government and quasi-government organizations 政府或半官方機構 (as directors, project managers, or quantity surveyors of different grades)
    • Developers 發展商 (as directors, project managers, and monitoring quantity surveyors of different grades)

    Major Scope of Services of Consultant Quantity Surveyors in Hong Kong
    香港顧問工料測量師的主要服務範圍

    • Preparation of pre-construction cost estimates
      編訂概算
    • Cost planning during the design stage
      設計階段造價控制
    • Preparation of tender documents
      編訂招標文件
    • Pre-qualification of tenderers
      投標單位預審
    • Tender analysis
      審標
    • Tender negotiation
      議標
    • Contract award
      定標
    • Preparation of contract documents
      編訂合同文件
    • Checking of insurance policies and performance bonds
      審核保險單、履約保證書
    • Valuation of progress payment applications
      審核進度款
    • Cost monitoring during the construction stage
      施工階段造價控制
    • Valuation of amounts of variations and claims
      審核變更費、索賠
    • Negotiation and agreement of final accounts
      商議結算

    Specialized Services of Some Consultant Quantity Surveyors in Hong Kong
    香港某些顧問工料測量師的特別服務範圍

    • Claims consultancy
      索賠顧問
    • Dispute resolution advisory, mediation and arbitration
      解決爭議、調解、仲裁
    • Insurance loss adjustments
      保險理賠
    • Facilities management
      設施管理
    • Value management
      價值工程
    • Partnering facilitation
      促進夥伴關係

    Areas of Specialization as written by HKIS

    Characteristics of Consultant Quantity Surveyors in Hong Kong
    香港顧問工料測量師的特色

    • Full services from inception of project to completion of construction and defects rectification
      由項目構思到建造完成的全過程造價諮詢服務
    • Now extending to post completion maintenance until redevelopment
      現在申延到建造後的維修直至重建
    • Dynamic management with constant review and updating
      不斷檢討及更新的動態管理
    • Cost and contract management of various kinds
      造價及合同管理多樣化
    • Self-regulated by professional bodies 
      自我約制(通過專業團體)
    • No Government control, though there is a Surveyors Registration Ordinance
      沒有政府監管(雖然有測量師註冊條例)
    • Mainly handling contracts with Bills of Quantities, but also contracts without Bills of Quantities
      主要處理有工程量清單的合同,但亦處理沒有工程量清單的合同

    Major Scope of Services of Contractor Quantity Surveyors in Hong Kong
    香港承建商的工料測量師的主要服務範圍

    • Similar to that described for Consultant Quantity Surveyors but starting from the tender stage
      與顧問工料測量師的差不多但從投標階段開始
    • Essentially commercial and contract management for the contractors
      主要負責承建商的商務及合同管理
    • Dealing with upstream clients and consultants
      處理上游的委託方及顧問
    • Dealing with downstream sub-contractors, suppliers and workers
      處理下游的分包商、供應商及工人

    Surveyors Registration Ordinance

    • There is a Surveyors Registration Ordinance with a Surveyors Registration Board set up to register professional surveyors.
    • Surveyors so registered are entitled to be called “Registered Professional Surveyors” such as “Registered Professional Surveyors (Quantity Surveying)”.
    • Such title is required for undertaking outsourced Government projects but is not mandatory for civil servants or working on private projects.

    Getting professionally qualified

    Training Path of a Typical Consultant Quantity Surveyor

    • Join a consultant quantity surveying practice
    • Check the arithmetic of calculations done by others
    • Measure quantities for approximate cost estimates, bills of quantities, variations, remeasurement
    • Get to know the Standard Method of Measurement better throughout the process
    • Get to know the geometric forms and names of the components making up the whole construction
    • Draft bills of quantities for editing by the senior
    • Participate in counter-checking the measurement done by team members
    • Assist in monthly valuation of contractors’ payments
    • Visit the site for the purposes of doing the valuation
    • Assist in preparing monthly financial reports
    • Accompany the senior to attend pre-contract design meeting or post contract site meetings
    • Price the variations and remeasurement
    • Price the approximate cost estimates and the bills of quantities
    • Agree final accounts with the contractors
    • Assist to prepare the comparison tables attached to tender reports
    • Assist to checking the typo corrections of tender documents drafted by the senior
    • Assist to draft tender documents
    • Assist to comment on insurance policies and bonds
    • Attend meetings independently
    • Give advice on tendering procedure, contractual arrangement and choices of contract clauses
    • Draft tender documents independently
    • Interview tenderers
    • Prepare tender reports independently
    • Supervise assistants
    • Perform independently
    • Continue to give advice on post contract contractual issues
    • Help avoid and resolve disputes

    Personal Attributes

    • Fair and reasonable – While Consultant Quantity Surveyors are engaged by their clients to protect the clients’ interest under the construction contract, they also have a duty under the construction contracts to act fairly and reasonably. Being fair and reasonable can in fact avoid unnecessary disputes under the construction contracts.
    • Integrity – Quantity Surveyors are dealing with money though no money is actually passing through him. However, any corruptive act would mean a huge sum of money lost by the clients or contractor employers. Quantity Surveyors must serve with the highest degree of integrity.
    • Patience and persistence – Quantity Surveyors need to spend a long period of time to measure the quantities required for bills of quantities time and again. This would need patience and persistence to the task. Quantity Surveyors have to negotiate with contractors over contractual and monetary claims. Differences in opinions can lead to heated arguments. Patience is again very important.
    • Attention to details – Quantity Surveyors must be accurate in his words and cost figures. Great attention to details to ensure error free is a must.

    Core Skill-sets Required

    • Construction technology - Good knowledge of construction technology is the foundation stone of any surveyors.
    • Building services – While traditionally cost management of building services is handled by the building services engineers, for over 3 decades in Hong Kong quantity surveyors have already been providing measurement and cost management services for building services. Therefore a good knowledge of building services is also required.
    • Mathematics – Daily life mathematics is enough. Use of calculus is rare.
    • 3-D visualization – Quantity Surveyors should be able to visualize the 3-dimensional geometry based on 2-dimensional drawings.
    • Measurement – Good measurement knowledge and skill are the higher level of foundation stone of Quantity Surveyors.
    • Language – Quantity Surveyors have to read many documents ranging from Standard Method of Measurement, Specification, Forms of Contract, legal textbooks, occasionally case laws, insurance policies and bonds. Quantity Surveyors have to draft terms and conditions into the tender documents for construction contracts and loopholes must be avoided. Consultant Quantity Surveyors have to write to advise their clients and other members of the consultant teams. Contractors’ Quantity Surveyors must also be able to write properly to put forward the Contractors’ case. The language skills of Quantity Surveyors must be high in order to rise up the career ladder.
    • Use of computers and software – Quantity Surveyors have to know how to use the usual office automation software with proficiency.
    • Site visit – Quantity Surveyors should like to go to site periodically.

    Valued Added Skill-sets

    • Building Information Modelling – This is an important technology which must be learned and used by the present-day construction related professionals. Some Quantity Surveyors have developed special interest to realise the potential of BIM for Quantity Surveyors.
    • Software programming skills – While the majority of Quantity Surveyors does not have the need and therefore the aptitude to possess software programming skills, better use of BIM requires the knowledge to write scripts or programmes.

    Types of Projects Involved

    • Public sector works and private sector works
    • Building and civil engineering works
    • New build, maintenance, alterations and additions, renovation

    Employment

    • Good Quantity Surveyors are always in good demand both by consultant quantity surveying practices and contractors and even big sub-contractors.
    • When the economy is booming with many new build projects, Quantity Surveyors have to work a lot of overtime throughout the year. However, working overtime is common amongst the construction related professionals. The extent of overtime worked by Quantity Surveyors is not the worst as compared to other professions.
    • When the economy is bad, new build projects will be less but people would spend money in maintenance, alterations and additions, and renovation. Final accounts for completed new build projects are still to be settled. These offer a cushioning effect over the possible redundancy of Quantity Surveyors. Over the years with many recessions, Quantity Surveyors are less hard hit as compared with other construction related professionals.
    • Quantity Surveyors working for contractors will have higher pay.
    • Quantity Surveying graduates tend to choose to work for consultant quantity surveying practices first at a lower pay in order to gain training experience for the Assessment of Professional Competence. After getting qualified, they would have more choices.
    • In good times, consultant quantity surveying practices offer overtime pay. In the best time (not in recent years), the basic salary can become doubled.
    • Qualified Quantity Surveyors working for Government are on the same pay scale as other construction related professionals.

    Where is the satisfaction?

    • Winning the trust of clients, being consulted frequently
    • Problems solved
    • Proper monitoring of prices, without unpleasant surprises to the clients
    • Moving projects ahead to get through tendering
    • Considered fair and reasonable by both the clients and the contractors
    • Seeing projects constructed successfully
    • Closing final accounts to all parties’ satisfaction

        Traditional Scope of Services of Cost Engineering Consultants in Mainland China (before 1990)
        內地造價工程咨詢單位的傳統工作範圍(1990年前)

        • Preparation of pre-construction cost estimates, tender drawing cost estimates and final accounts, and usually as separate services
          只做概算、預算及結算,而通常是分開的服務
        • Pre-construction cost estimates are done one or twice only, not following through the whole design stage
          概算只做一、二次,不跟蹤整個設計階段
        • Not providing contract advisory services
          不提供合同咨詢服務
        • Tender drawing cost estimates are usually for the client's reference for tender negotiation, not for tendering purposes and usually are subject to remeasurement when settling the final accounts
          預算通常只是給委託方參考作為議標用,不作為招標用,而通常在結算時重算
        • Not providing contract advisory services
          不提供合同咨詢服務
        • Not significantly involved in the tendering stage
          招標階段不顯著參與
        • Not significantly involved in the construction stage
          施工階段不顯著參與

        Recent Scope of Services of Cost Engineering Consultants in Mainland China
        內地造價工程咨詢單位的近年的工作範圍

        • Evolving progressively to provide full scope of services like Quantity Surveyors
          陸續演變到好像工料測量師般提供全過程服務

        Competitors
        競爭對手

        • Same profession
          同專業
          • Local
            本地
          • Other provinces
            外省市
          • Foreign countries
            國外
        • Other professions
          不同專業
          • In-house employers of developers
            建設單位自有人員
          • Other professions within the same industry or outside
            行裡行外的其他專業

        Measures to Compete with Others
        克服競爭對手的手法

        • Government policies, qualification requirements, tax - only applicable to Mainland China
          政策、資質、稅收 - 只適用於內地
          • against: other provinces, foreign countries
            對:外省市、國外
        • Customary practice, alliance, attachment - applicable to Mainland China
          慣例、掛鈎、掛靠 - 適用於內地
          • against: local
            對:本地
        • Capability, service contents, lower prices, integrity
          實力、服務內容、平價、誠信

        End of Page

        Factors affecting Business Survival 影響企業生存的因素

        Factors affecting Business Survival 影響企業生存的因素 KCTang Sat, 20/12/2014 - 18:33

        Go to End

        Note

        20 Dec 2014: Moved form wiki.

        Favourable

        1. Professional competence
        2. Quality management
        3. Complaint avoidance
        4. Timely response
        5. High efficiency
        6. Innovation
        7. Integrity (this being listed last not because it is of the least importance but because it is a matter of course without saying)

        Adverse

        • Professional negligence

        End of Page

        QS's Measures to Enhance Cost Effectiveness of Projects and Processes

        QS's Measures to Enhance Cost Effectiveness of Projects and Processes KCTang Sat, 20/12/2014 - 18:41

        Go to End

        Note

        20 Dec 2014: Moved form wiki.

        Estimating

        1. Provide early and quick advice on costs of preliminary design to avoid abortive design effort
        2. Provide early and quick advice on costs of alternative designs to select the better alternatives
        3. Participate actively in project meetings to voice out areas of design with possible imbalanced cost allocations
        4. Participate in value management workshops to evaluate different design options to enhance values of proposed designs
        5. Update the pre-construction cost estimates regularly in line with design development to ensure no uncontrolled budget overrun
        6. Advise on the cost implications of major changes likely to cause budget overrun to see whether the changes are justified and value for money
        7. Suggest savings to off-set unexpected changes contributing to budget overrun

        Tender Documentation

        1. Suggest how the contracts should be packaged to give a proper balance between long lead time to complete design for the whole project, risks and hence higher tender prices to allow for long lag time to actually carry out some work sections, single line of responsibility, etc.
        2. Suggest how the design responsibilities should be shared between the Architect & Engineer and the Contractor to ensure proper share without undue high costs and unbearable risks while benefiting from the Contractor's design-and-build expertise
        3. Observe and follow the standard practice and procedures and use standard templates to reduce abortive work to team members in scrutinising the deliverables
        4. Request for the most up-to-date client's practice manuals, standard templates and house rules which may not yet be available on the web site yet to avoid abortive work
        5. Scrutinise the standard templates for preparing tender documents and make suitable amendments to reflect the project specifics to ensure that the tenderers are sufficiently alerted to when pricing the tenders
        6. Seek early approval on authority to use alternative standard provisions and on deviations from the mandatory standard provisions
        7. Check actively the tender drawings and tender specification to ensure sufficient details and no discrepancies, and request the Architect and Engineer to supplement and clarify accordingly
        8. Prepare the cost estimates and bills of quantities in good quality following a due process of quality control to eliminate chances of errors or omissions.
        9. Use provisional quantities or schedule of rates as a supplement to the bills of quantities in case the relevant design is not fixed and firm yet for tendering so to obtain rates for post contract pricing

        Tender Analysis

        • Scrutinise the tenders received to ensure no irregularities in pricing

        Post Contract Cost Contract

        1. Advise on the cost implications of every proposed variation as well as instruction involving expenditure of provisional items during construction
        2. Update the post contract cost reports regularly considering all variation instructions, expenditure of provisional items, claims, etc. to ensure no uncontrolled budget overrun
        3. Suggest savings to off-set unexpected changes contributing to budget overrun
        4. Value payments fairly and reasonably so as not to cause unfair and unnecessary cash flow burden on the Contractor, which will eventually result in higher final account claim
        5. Advise on proper contractual interpretation to fairly treat reasonable claims and resist unreasonable claims
        6. Suggest alternative solutions to help resolve problems encountered by the Contractor to avoid the problem to escalate into a cost claim without chance of mitigation
        7. Adopt the principle of mediation where parties should seek to achieve win-win situation instead of arguing over the rights and wrongs

        End of Page

        Development Cycle 建設流程

        Development Cycle 建設流程 KCTang Tue, 17/03/2020 - 05:48

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        Note

        • 17 Mar 2020: Revised.
        • 20 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

        Varieties of construction project developments

        • Sector
          • private sector
          • public sector
        • Type
          • building works
          • civil engineering works
        • Site acquisition
          • Leasing land
            租地
          • Purchasing buildings
            買樓
          • Renting buildings
            租樓 
        • New or existing
          • New development 
            新建
          • Redevelopment 
            重建
          • Conversion 
            改造
          • Renovation 
            翻新
        • Purpose
          • for self-use
          • for sales
          • for rental.

        Stages of design and construction

        • The names may vary between different countries or even within Hong Kong between different stakeholders.
        • Simplest classification: 
          • Feasibility study
            可行性研究
          • Planning approval 
            規劃許可
          • Design
            設計
          • Tender documentation
          • Tendering
            招投標
          • Construction
            施工
          • Defects rectification.
        • Sales and rental marketing run concurrently.
        • Occupancy / use / repair and maintenance after construction. 
          使用/維修保養

        Pre-contract stage

        • The period before awarding a contract for construction, generally referring to the main contract but actually can refer to any separate contract.

        Post contract stage

        • The period after awarding a contract for construction.

        Post-completion or occupancy stage

        • The period after completion of construction.

        Estate management / property management / facility management

        • "estate management" is an old UK term.
        • "property management" is a new term.
        • "facility management" appears to originate from the US, but is now more commonly used every where.
        • Such management starts to take over after completion of construction.

        End of Page

        Organization of Parties to Construction 建設組織架構

        Organization of Parties to Construction 建設組織架構 KCTang Mon, 28/02/2022 - 20:33

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        Note

        • 28 Feb 2022 Minor adjustments made.
        • 28 Mar 2021: Contracting hierarchy added.
        • 20 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

        Usual contracting hierarchy

        (Excluding those not directly related to construction.)
        (The one at higher level is the buyer and the other at the immediate lower level is the seller.)

        • Developer / Employer (contract term in Hong Kong or the UK) / Owner (contract term in US):
          • Consultants and site supervisory staff
          • Contractor / Main Contractor / General Contractor / Head Contractor / Management Contractor:
            • Direct labour
            • Suppliers (Nominated / Domestic)
            • Sub-Contractors (Nominated / Domestic):
              • Direct labour or suppliers
              • Sub-sub-contractors (many tiers):
                • Direct labour and suppliers.
          • Other Separate Contractors and Suppliers
          • Statutory undertakers / public utility companies / government departments

        Developer / Owner / Employer
        建設單位 / 業主 / 發包方

        1. Project Manager
          項目經理
        2. Consultants
          顧問團
          • Architect
            建築師
          • Structural Engineer
            結構工程師
          • Building Services Engineer / M&E Engineer
            屋宇設備工程師 / 機電工程師
          • Interior Designer
            室內設計師
          • Geotechnical Engineer
            地質工程師
          • Landscaping Architect
            園境師
          • Quantity Surveyor
            工料測量師
        3. Clerk of Works / Building Services Inspector
          現場監工 / 機電監工

        Main Contractor
        總承包方

        1. Sub-Contractors
          分包方
          • Nominated
            指定
          • Domestic
            自選
        2. Suppliers
          供應商 / 供貨方
          • Nominated
            指定
          • Domestic
            自選

        Other Separate Contractors and Suppliers
        其他獨立承包方及供應商

        Statutory Undertakers and Public Utility Companies
        法定承辦商及市政配套單位

        Purchasers and Users
        買家 / 用家

        End of Page

        Estimating and Pricing

        Estimating and Pricing KCTang Wed, 17/02/2021 - 23:22

        Go to End

        Note

        • 7 Mar 2022: Cost geometry and most significant cost parameters moved from Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control.
        • 17 Feb 2021: Term contract edition updated.
        • 17 Mar 2020: Revised.
        • 26 Feb 2020: Minor adjustments made.
        • 17 Feb 2020: Tender price indices links updated.
        • 20 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

        Cost and price

        1. “Cost” and “Price” are often used interchangeably.
        2. Between the two parties to a transaction, the price quoted by the Seller / Contractor is the cost to the Buyer / Employer.
        3. For the same party, Cost + Profit = Price.
        4. Seller's price = buyer's cost.

        Values

        1. Values can be monetary prices or other benefits.
        2. Cost can also include non-monetary costs.

        Cost vs Quantity - Not a straight line relationship between costs and quantities

        ​​​​​​​Total cost vs quantity:

        • The total cost of factory production (and therefore sales of materials and goods) does not increase in proportion to the increase in the quantity produced, since there are some initial fixed costs (e.g. factory, equipment, rental deposits) and recurring fixed costs (e.g. monthly rents, additional equipment when the existing capacity is exceeded) not in proportion to the quantity to be included.
        • The total sales value may also not increase in proportion to the increase in the quantity sold (e.g. bulk discount, delivery vehicle not used to full capacity).
        • The total cost is usually higher than the total sales value initially, but the total sales value must rise up to exceed the total cost eventually for the business to be viable.

        Linear items:

        • For linear items, there can be fixed costs which do not change when the length changes.
        • The unit rate per length can decrease if the length is increased without any change to the fixed components.
          • e.g.  length 10 @ rate 4 + number 2 @ rate 5 = 40 + 10 = 50; 50 / 10 = 5.00;
          • while  length 15 @ rate 4 + number 2 @ rate 5 = 60 + 10 = 70; 70 / 15 = 4.67.

        Superficial items:

        • For superficial items, the perimeter length increases less rapidly than the increase in the superficial area (300% vs 800% in the table below).
        • The ratio of perimeter length / area decreases if the area is increased.
        • This means the unit rate per superficial area would have the same effect.
        • However, for the same area, the perimeter length can increase considerably if the shape is elongated.
        • The shape is important.

        Cubic items:

        • For cubic items, the rates of change of the side area and volume relative to the base area would depend on which dimension is changed.
        • For the same height, the volume increases in proportion to the increase in the base area (i.e. fixed volume/base area), while the side area increases less rapidly resulting in a decrease in the side area/base area ratio.
        • For the same base area, the side area and volume increase in proportion to the increase in the height (as shown in the graph below). Their rates of change are the same (as shown in the table above).
        • If both the height and the base area are increased, the volume/base area will increase, but whether the side area/base area will increase or decrease will depend on the relative rates of changes of the height and the base area.
        • In all cases, the unit cost and unit sales value should therefore not remain constant.
        • The appropriate unit cost and unit sales value should be determined based on the quantity required, and suitably adjusted in case of changes in the quantity.

        Impact on unit cost and unit rate

        • Making a unit rate competitive enough to secure sales volume and produce profit is important.
        • Works or sales contracts usually require the unit rates to be fixed even though the quantities may be varied. If the variation is significant, there can be a huge loss or profit. Some contracts permit the adjustment of the unit rates in case of unexpected big changes.
        • The quantity of any item of work can vary between different construction projects and how to estimate an appropriate unit rate is crucial.

        Impact on design

        • The relationship of number, length, area and volume is more important for the design of the building form and shape.
        • Whether a building is more economical or expensive than the other for the same floor area and type would primarily depend on the ratios of the numbers, lengths, areas and volumes of the building components to the floor areas, and then on the materials and standards.

        Breakdown into more or less items

        • It would be more expedient if less items need to be measured to arrive at the total cost or price.
        • This means that the unit rate has to allow for the costs of other related items not measured separately.
        • However, when the costs of other related items do not vary in proportion to the quantity of the item measured, the unit cost of the item measured would change significant to become unrealistic, then such other related items should be measured separately for costing.
        • Therefore, the unit rates should only be required to include for related items which change in proportion to the quantity measured or for non cost significant ancillary items. Yet, significant changes to the quantity may still make the non cost significant ancillary items to become significant. This is an area for contractual claims.

        Cost geometry
        造價幾何

        1. Note the effect of different site areas for the same building:
          • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
        2. Note the effect of doubling the number of storeys:
        3. Note the effect of elongating the building without increasing the floor area:
        4. Unit cost per floor area:
          • Construction costs are usually compared based on unit cost per floor area.
          • The above suggests that the unit cost per floor area cannot be a constant for the same type of buildings of different forms and shapes.
        5. Impact on design:
            • Whether a building is more economical or expensive than the other for the same floor area and type would primarily depend on the ratios of the numbers, lengths, areas and volumes of the building components to the floor areas, and then on the materials and standards.

          Most significant cost parameters
          最主要造價參數

          1. Appreciate:
            • which cost portions should bear more direct proportions to each parameter:
              ​​​​​​​瞭解那部份的成本內容與那個造價參數有較直接的比例關係:
            • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​
          2. Most significant cost parameters:
            • Floor area (above ground + below ground)
              樓面面積
            • Ground area (= roof area)
              地面面積 (=屋面面積)
            • Transfer structure area
              轉換結構面積
            • External elevation area
              外立面面積
            • Basement screen wall area or more effectively basement volume of excavation
              地下室外牆面積或較有效的地下室土方體積
            • Site area
              工地面積
            • External area (site area - ground area)
              室外面積
            • Number of equipment
              台數
            • Refrigeration tonnage
              冷噸
            • Other elemental quantities.
              ​​​​​​​其他功能分部工程量。
          3. Quick cost estimating:
            • Using this small number of cost parameters can enable quick cost estimating.
          4. Accurate measurement:
            • The values (quantities) of those parameters which will be used extensively throughout a cost estimate should be accurately measured, unlike the general message here that the cost estimates should be approximate.

          ​​​​​​​Price build-up

          1. The total price is built-up from:

                    Labour costs (​人工費) 

          +       Material costs (材料費)

          +       Plant costs (機械費)                                                  

                    Direct costs (直接費)

          +       Site and project overheads (現場及項目管理費)

          +       Head office overheads (公司管理費)                       

                    Costs (成本)

          +       Profit and risks allowance (利潤及風險費)           

                    All-in price before value added tax (稅前綜合價)

          +       Value added tax (從價稅)                                       

                    All-in price (稅後綜合價)                                          

          1. The value added tax here means a tax chargeable upon the net total price before this tax or the gross total price after this tax. Hong Kong does not implement valued added tax. Hong Kong only charges profit tax on the realisable profit annually.
          2. Some of the site and project overheads are not directly related to a particular work item but are commonly shared by more than one item. It is normal to price for these site and project overheads as the Preliminaries. The all-in rate for the work item will then only include the balance of the site and project overheads not included in the Preliminaries.
          3. Profit and overheads are usually allowed for as a percentage of the direct costs. The usual norm for variation is 15%, but it will be very different in competitive tenders. The profit and overheads allowed in the prices for different items can be different.
          4. Some part of the Works may be sublet to sub-contractors. They will include their own overheads in their prices to the Contractor. They may also share to provide some of the site overheads otherwise provided by the Contractor. Therefore, the mark-up on sub-contractors prices for profit and overheads should be less than that on direct labour and materials.

          Mark-up and margin

          1. 100 x (1 + 15%) = 100 + 15 = 115:
            • 115 has a mark-up of 15%.
          2.  85 + 15 = 100:
            • 100 has a margin of 15%.
          3. 15/115 = 13.04%:
            • A mark-up of 15% is equal to a margin of 13.04%.
          4. 15/85 = 17.64%:
            • A margin of 15% is equal to a mark-up of 17.64%.

          All-in rates and unit of quantity

          1. All-in rate = all-in price / quantity.
          2. Not all the costs are directly proportional to the quantity of the work, it can be a combination of:
            • Costs proportional to volume
            • Costs proportional to area
            • Costs proportional to number
            • Fixed costs.
          3. When the total price for a work item is required to be broken down into quantity and rate, the unit of the quantity to be used should be one which represents the most cost significant variable.
          4. If there are more than one cost significant variable, then the work item should be broken down into more than one sub-item.
          5. It is usual and easier to estimate the cost of a bigger sample quantity of a work item first and divide the cost by the quantity to obtain the unit rate so that:
            • Those costs not directly related to the quantity of the work item can be shared
            • Wastage, laps, etc. which are not measured in the quantity can be allowed for.

            Rate build-up

            1. Labour costs:
              • Daily rates to include for:
                • daily basic wage,
                • travelling and meal allowances,
                • allowances for hand tools and personal accessories,
                • allowances for holidays with pay,
                • mandatory provident fund (MPF) contribution,
                • year end bonus,
                • incentive payments, 
                • levies and insurances if not priced separately,
                • etc.
              • ​Time to consider:
                • taking from stores, hoisting, lowering,
                • placing, fixing,
                • non-productive travelling and recess time, 
                • etc.
            2. Material costs:
              • Rates to include for:
                • ex-factory costs, package,
                • export transportation, transit insurance,
                • customs clearance and duties,
                • demurrage, off-site storage,
                • local delivery,
                • off-loading, returning package,
                • etc.
              • Quantities to consider:
                • basic quantities,
                • breakage, damage, theft,
                • wastage (cutting, conversion),
                • unmeasured laps,
                • bulkage, consolidation, shrinkage,
                • etc. 
            3. Plant costs (called "Equipment costs" in civil engineering contracts): 
              • Rates to include:
                • Use of plant (not purchasing of plant),
                • Mobilization, relocation and demobilization costs, if not measured separately,
                • Fuels and consumables,
                • Maintenance and repair.
              • Time to consider:
                • Time used,
                • Unavoidable idling time,
                • Mobilization, relocation and demobilization time, if not measured separately.
            4. Site and project overheads
              • Expenses on site or off-site specifically due to the project, not specifically related to any particular group of work but are commonly shared.
            5. Head Office Overheads
              • Expenses in running the head office, shared between different concurrent projects.
            6. Profit
              • The expected profit with allowance for risks.
            7. Tax if charged based on total price (not in Hong Kong which implements profits tax on the realisable profit annually, not value added tax on turnover).
            8. Rates build-up applicable to measured work as well as preliminaries

            Consultants' source of data

            1. Tenderers when tendering will get their cost data by making enquiries with their prospective sub-contractors and suppliers.
            2. Consultants may make enquiries with prospective contractors, sub-contractors and suppliers for cost data but may only be able to obtain some indicative budgetary prices which may differ from that obtained under circumstances of real business opportunity and competitive tendering.
            3. To evaluate whether tender prices received are reasonable market rates, other cost data not received for the same tender would need to be used to compare.
            4. Consultants would therefore rely more on past cost data for cost estimating and for evaluation of tenders.
            5. Consultants would know the rates and prices in tenders received but would not normally know the costs, profit and overheads in the tenders. It does not really matter when the Consultants are interested more on the all-in rates. The details of costs, profit and overheads are only essential when handling claims.
            6. When estimating composite rates covering more than one work item, the quantity ratios of the constituent work items would be important.
            7. Rates:
            8. Quantity factors and ratios:
              • Cost Analyses of Other Projects
              • Analyses by sampling.

            Adjust for time differences

            1. There can be up or down fluctuations of costs and prices over time. When using past cost data for the present or future work, adjustments should be made for the time differences.
            2. Indices for adjusting for time differences:
              • Cost indices – reflecting labour and material costs
              • Tender price indices – reflecting prices of work
              • Consumer price indices – reflecting general consumer prices not just for the construction industry.
            3. Cost indices and tender price indices can change at different rates. Cost indices can rise but tender price indices may fall in case of severe competitive market lacking work.

            Index references

            1. Census and Statistics Department - Index Numbers of the Costs of Labour and Materials used in Public Sector Construction Projects
            2. Census and Statistic Department - Average Wholesale Prices of Selected Building Materials
            3. Architectural Services Department - Building Works Tender Price Index
            4. Architectural Services Department - Building Services Tender Price Index
            5. Rider Levett Bucknall Construction Cost Update Hong Kong
            6. Arcadis Quarterly Construction Cost Review Hong Kong and China

            End of Page

            Factors affecting construction costs

            Factors affecting construction costs KCTang Thu, 03/03/2022 - 04:41

            Go to End

            Note

            • 3 Mar 2022: Modular integrated construction added.
            • 29 Mar 2021: Full stops added.
            • 2 Mar 2021: Revised.​​​​​​​
            • 17 Mar 2020: Created.​​​​​​​

            Generally

            1. Cost factors may be asked from different perspectives at different stages:
              • Feasibility study before choosing site:
                • What type of development?
                • Which country and place to invest and develop? 
                • Why cost differently between countries, places and sites?
              • Planning and design after fixing site:
                • What design, provisions, types, standards of the whole and its components?
                • Why cost differently?
              • Tendering:
                • Why tender prices so different?
              • Construction:
                • Why original contract sum changes?
            2. Cost factors generally:
              • Some factors affect the quantities, and therefore the total cost.
              • Some factors affect the unit cost per area or unit cost per length (e.g., roads, rails, tunnels, bridges, etc.). 
              • Some factors affect the unit rate per quantity of work.
              • Price changes during the post contract stage are excluded here.
            3. Think and brainstorm:
              • The factors can equally apply to other industries or commercial or even social sectors.
              • Common sense knowledge is to be applied.
            4. Classify systematically:
              • There is no absolute answer to "which classification is the best?".
              • A systematic classification should help people think further systematically in the future and present the more relevant factors systematically depending on the perspective and stage.

            (3 and 4 added, 2 Mar 2021)

            No fixed prices

            1. One important thing to learn is that there is no fixed (constant) set of unit prices in any economy, as evidenced by the many factors suggested.
            2. Free market economies operate on free market competition of the prices. They would only regulate prices for using government services and some public utility services.
            3. The mainland, China used to fix a constant set of unit prices (by issuing standard price books) with moderate periodic inflationary adjustments but when foreign materials and equipment using foreign currencies are involved, the price fluctuations can become serious. After opening up the market, the mainland has admitted significant free market competition though some measures to regulate the prices are still implemented.
            4. Hong Kong operates as a free market economy. Therefore, there is no fixed set of unit prices for construction works. An exception to this is that Hong Kong Government publishes Schedule of Rates for term contract works. See notes at the end.

            (Section added, 2 Mar 2021)

            Reasons for variances in unit rates in the same city

            1. Even for work items of the same description, the rates can be quite different between projects due to various reasons.
            2. Design:
              • Functions
              • Materials and construction
              • Standard.
            3. Site location:
              • ​Transportation
              • Restrictions.
            4. Construction:
              • Project size
              • Extent of mechanization
              • Extent of standardization
              • Extent of repetition
              • Extent of pre-fabrication
              • Volume of bulk purchasing
              • ​Workmanship
              • Weather
              • Extent of safety measures
              • Extent of environmental protection measures.
            5. Economic environment:
              • Level of market competition
              • Exchange rates
              • Time differences.
            6. Contractual:
              • Degree of contractual risks
              • Harshness of contract terms
              • Payment terms
              • Degree of design liability and statutory submission obligations
              • Extent of warranties.
            7. Human factors:
              • Consultants’ attitude
              • Owners and occupiers’ attitude and co-operation
              • Tenderers’ pricing strategy in distributing the costs, profit and overheads differently across different work sections.

            (Section added, 2 Mar 2021)

            ​​​​​​​Country (assuming putting a done design to a different country)

            1. Different planning and design regulations.
            2. Different environmental requirements.
            3. Different tax requirements.
            4. Planned economy or free market economy.
            5. Significance of government intervention.
            6. Different purchasing power of local currencies.
            7. Availability of foreign currencies.
            8. Availability of local supply of labour, materials, plant and management.
            9. Degree of reliance on foreign supply of labour, materials, plant and management.
            10. Different requirements on holidays and restriction on working hours.
            11. Different productivity of local labour.
            12. Different extent of availability of public roads and utilities.
            13. Different degree of ease of evacuation of existing occupiers.
            14. Significance of corruption.

            Site location and conditions

            1. Extreme climatic conditions: hot, cold, frozen work period, typhoon.
            2. Seismic zones.
            3. Existing status of use: greenfield or brownfield.
            4. Existing type of use: urban, rural or agricultural.
            5. Existing site topography: flat, hilly, mountainous, offshore, etc.
            6. Ground conditions: soft, rocky, reclaimed, submerged, swampy.
            7. Obstructions underground and above-ground.
            8. Availability of public roads and utilities.
            9. Ease of evacuation of existing occupiers.
            10. Congested site or sufficient space for storage and maneuvering.

            Planning and design

            1. Functional type of the building or civil engineering construction.
            2. Class and standard of the construction.
            3. Planning and design regulations for different sites and constructions.
            4. Environmental requirements.
            5. Structural form of the construction (brick, reinforced concrete, steel, timber, composite).
            6. Plan shape of the construction. (Different elevation area to floor area ratios. Square building costs less than rectangular building on external elevations.)
            7. Storey height. (Storey height will affect the vertical elements of the building both internally and externally. Higher storey height will increase the volume of the building to be heated or cooled, and therefore HVAC services.)
            8. Number of storeys. (Different shares of the roof and ground slab and beam costs. Need to have staircases for non-single storey buildings. Need to have lifts and refuge floors for tall buildings.)
            9. Height of the construction. (Heavier loading on taller buildings.) 
            10. Orientation of the construction. (Thermal transmission on external surfaces. Use of sunlight.)
            11. Impact on neighbouring properties.
            12. Extent of provision of construction components.
            13. Functions, materials and quality of components.
            14. Extent of site works and external works shared by the main construction (affecting unit cost per area or length).

            Economic environment

            1. Stability of economy.
            2. Forecast of cost fluctuations.
            3. Level of market competition.
            4. Exchange rates and their changes.
            5. Time differences (if compared between projects at different times).

            Construction 

            1. Project size.
            2. Period of construction and its reasonableness.
            3. Ease of transportation.
            4. Access restrictions.
            5. Changing labour, material and plant costs over time.
            6. Extent of plant required and availability of plant.
            7. Availability of supervisory staff.
            8. Extent of hoardings, covered walkways, scaffolding required.
            9. Extent of temporary works required.
            10. Extent of safety measures required during construction.
            11. Extent of environmental protection measures required during construction.
            12. Extent of mechanisation.
            13. Extent of standardisation.
            14. Extent of repetition.
            15. Extent of pre-fabrication.
            16. Volume of bulk purchasing.
            17. Workmanship expected.
            18. Weather which may be encountered.
            19. Availability of temporary water and electricity.

            Contractual

            1. Procurement method.
            2. Degree of contractual risks.
            3. Harshness of contract terms.
            4. Payment terms.
            5. Degree of design liability and statutory submission obligations.
            6. Extent of insurances, bonds and warranties.

            Tenderers' ability and perception (causing differences in tender rates)

            1. Labour, material and sub-contract costs which can be sourced at the time of tendering.
            2. Availability of plant.
            3. Availability of supervisory staff.
            4. Availability of expertise.
            5. Availability of sufficient cash flow or reliance on loans.
            6. Reasonableness of the period of construction.
            7. Consultants’ attitude.
            8. Owners and occupiers’ attitude and co-operation.
            9. Tenderers' profit expectations.
            10. Tenderers’ pricing strategy in distributing the costs, profit and overheads differently across different work sections.

            How about modular integrated construction?

            1. Designers’ capabilities.
            2. Statutory requirements.
            3. Factory capabilities.
            4. Early involvement of contractors.
            5. Off-site costs, delivery and logistics, factory’s environmental impact.
            6. On-site storage, hoisting, special jointing, fixings, weatherproofing, fire-resistance.
            7. Shortened period of site overheads.
            8. Local environment impact.
            9. Local workers’ prospect.

            End of Page

            Profit, margin, markup, wastage, bulkage and shrinkage

            Profit, margin, markup, wastage, bulkage and shrinkage KCTang Sat, 21/03/2020 - 01:25

            Go to End

            Note

            • 21 Mar 2020: Created.

            Simple approach

            1. When we face with the above terms, what should be the mathematical formulae to handle them and how can we remember the formulae?
            2. Instead of using x, y and z to represent the formulae, it would be easier to derive the formulae based on some simple numerical values using 100 as the base.

            Cost, price, profit, margin, markup

            1. cost + profit = price.
            2. profit markup % = profit / cost x 100%.
            3. profit margin % = profit / price x 100%.
            4. Given profit markup and price, how to get the cost?
            5. A long way:
              • Cost + cost * profit markup % = price
              • Cost * (1 + profit markup %) = price
              • Cost = price / (1 + profit markup %) = price x 100 / (100 + profit based on 100)
            6. A quicker way:
              • If cost = 100 and profit markup = 15%, then profit = 15 and price = 115.
              • This means, cost = price x 100 / 115.
              • If cost = 100 and profit markup = 10%, then profit = 10 and price = 110.
              • This means, cost = price x 100 / 110.
              • To conclude, if profit markup = P%, then cost = price x 100 / (100 + P).

            % wastage

            1. If a finished qty of work of 100 requires a material qty of 120. The qty wasted is 20.
            2. Should the wastage be 20/100 = 20% or 20/120 = 16.67%?
            3. Both can be correct depending on which is used as the base.
            4. However, in pricing, when the payment is based on the finished qty, the qty wasted should be borne by the finished qty. 
            5. In the above example, the addition to cover the qty wasted is 20/100 = 20%, so the wastage should be 20%.
            6. If a 3 x 6 finished board requires a 4 x 8 uncut board, the wastage to be allowed is (4 x 8) / (3 x 6) - 1 = 32/18 - 1 = 77.78%.
            7. To conclude, the wastage to be allowed
              = qty wasted / finished qty 
              = (qty used - finished qty) / finished qty
              = (qty used / finished qty) - 1.
            8. The denominator is the payable qty (finished qty).

            % bulkage (excavation)

            1. How to allow for the extra volume to work on if payment is based on the volume before bulking?
            2. Bulkage or bulking factor = volume after bulking / volume before bulking.
            3. Volume after bulking = volume before bulking x bulkage.
            4. The addition to cover the extra volume is volume before bulking x bulkage. This should be simple.

            % shrinkage (concrete, mortar, plaster, screed) or % compaction (soil backfilling)

            1. How to allow for shrinkage if payment is based on the quantity after shrinkage?
            2. If shrinkage = 20%, for each 100 qty, qty shrunk = 20, qty left = 80.
            3. The addition to cover the qty shrunk = 20/80 = 25%.
            4. If shrinkage = 30%, for each 100 qty, qty shrunk = 30, qty left = 70.
            5. The addition to cover the qty shrunk = 30/70 = 42.86%.
            6. If shrinkage = S%, then the addition factor = S/(100-S).
            7. The denominator is the payable qty (qty left).

            End of Page

            Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control 施工合同前造價計劃和控制

            Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control 施工合同前造價計劃和控制 KCTang Fri, 08/04/2022 - 15:47

            Go to End

            Contents

            Note 註

            • 8/4/2022: Chinese version partially added. Minor adjustments made.
              添加了部分中文版。進行了細微調整。
            • 16/3/2022: Re-sequencing and minor corrections made.
              進行了重新排序和小幅修正。
            • 10/3/2022: Minor adjustments made.
              進行了細微調整。
            • 7/3/2022: ICMS split out on its own. Cost geometry and most significant cost parameters moved to "Estimating and Pricing".
              ICMS 分拆獨立。造價幾何和最重要的造價參數移至"估算和定價"。
            • 3/3/2022: Minor adjustments made.
              進行了細微調整。
            • 1/3/2022: Updated for ICMS 3 and IPMS.
              針對 ICMS 3 和 IPMS 進行了更新。
            • 23/2/2022: Minor adjustments made.
              進行了細微調整。
            • 18/3/2021: 9 sections added or revised. Punctuation style revised.
              添加或修改了 9 個部分。標點樣式修改。 
            • 13/3/2020: Usual payment terms added.
              添加了通常的付款條件。
            • 26/2/2020: Minor adjustments made.
              進行了細微調整。
            • 20/12/2014: Moved from wiki.
              從 wiki 移來。

            Pre-Contract Cost Management
            施工合同前的造價管理

            1. Principal cost management tasks during the pre-contract stage:
              施工合同前的主要造價管理任務:
              • Prepare cost estimates or cost plans
                編製估算概算或造價計劃
              • Prepare cash flow tables
                編製現金流量表
              • Attend design meetings
                參與設計會議
              • Monitor the design
                監控設計
              • Adjust the cost estimates and reconcile
                調整估算概算及解釋變化
              • Compare alternatives.
                比較備選方案。
            2. Estimate, plan, update and control.
              估計、計劃、更新和控制

            Need for pre-construction cost estimates
            為何需要施工前概算

            1. Know the costs for investment decisions:
              知道成本造價以作投資決定: 
              • Calculate land bid price
                計算買地投標價
              • Calculate acceptable rental
                計算可接受的租金
              • Evaluate the feasibility of the investment.
                評估投資的可行性。
            2. Establish a project (development) budget.
              確定發展項目的投資預算。
            3. Obtain funding.
              獲取資助。
            4. Borrow money from the bank.
              從銀行借錢。
            5. Formulate a design brief which defines the scope and standard of the project.
              制定設計任務書以說明發展項目的範圍和標準。
            6. Monitor the design development to control the costs within budget.
              ​​​​​​​監控設計的深化以控制不超出投資預算。
            7. Estimate fees or review fee percentage.
              估算顧問費或覆核顧問費率。

            Best time to plan and control the costs
            計劃和控制造價的最佳時機

            1. As early as possible during the development process.
              在項目發展階段中越早越好。
            2. Better chances to make design changes to find a better solution.
              較有機會修改設計取得更好的方案。
            3. To reduce abortive design costs and time.
              減少設計返工成本和時間。

            Ways to calculate cost estimates
            計算造價估算的方法

            1. Techniques:
              • Estimates should be done using expedient methods, approximations and shortcuts to reduce estimating time and costs in order to afford more estimates.
            2. Methods:
              • By unit cost per floor area / length / number estimates
              • By measuring the most significant cost parameters
              • By measuring elemental quantities
              • By measuring approximate quantities
              • By pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.

            ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Estimating mottos
            四字真言

            1. From big to small.

              由大到小。

            2. From rough to fine. 

              從粗到細。

            3. Focus on the important.

              重點出擊。

            4. Make bold assumptions.

              大膽假設。

            5. Verify carefully.

              小心求証。

            6. Compare with the unlike.

              觸類旁通。

            7. Conduct self-checking.

              自我覆核。

            8. Reconcile with the previous. 

              瞻前顧後。

            9. Empathize with the Client.

              ​​​​​​​設身處地​​​​​​。

            (gerunds changed to verbs, 8/4/2022)

            ​​​​​​​Different names of pre-construction cost estimates
            概算的不同名稱

            1. Rough Indication of Costs ("RIC").
              大約估算。
            2. Preliminary Indication of Costs.
              初步估算指標。
            3. Preliminary Cost Estimates.
              概算。
            4. Elemental Cost Estimates.
              功能分部概算。
            5. Cost Plans.
              成本計畫。
            6. Cost Models (An American term).
              成本模型 (美式用詞)。
            7. Pre-tender Estimates.
              標底。

            Budgets, cost estimates and cost plans

            1. Budget:
              • A budget is the maximum sum a Developer is willing and able to spend on a project.
            2. Cost estimate:
              • A cost estimate is a forecast of the probable ultimate cost based on the current design.
              • It is required to be done throughout the pre-construction stages as well as the construction stage until the estimated costs become fixed prices.
              • A cost estimate for now, if satisfactory and approved, will become the cost plan for the future design.
            3. Cost plan:
              • A cost plan is a detailed cost framework for controlling future design.
              • It sets out the portions of the total budget allocated to different parts of the construction so as to serve as the cost limits to the relevant parts of the construction.
              • It may just be based on some interpolation from the cost data of other projects or may be based on some detailed cost estimate specifically prepared for the relevant design.
              • It usually refers to the cost plan before the award of the principal contract. After that, the cost plan will be replaced with regular final statements.
            4. Rough indication of costs ("RIC"):
              • It is a kind of cost estimates. It may be just based on unit cost / number or unit cost / floor area or unit cost / other functional unit to be used in the feasibility study or early design stage based on some ideas or sketch designs
              • HK ArchSD still calls it "Rough Indication of Costs" when the estimate is still in the early stage though the details may be more than just based on unit cost per floor areas.
            5. Approximate estimate:
              • Approximate estimates should be done using expedient methods, approximations and shortcuts to reduce estimating time and costs in order to afford more estimates.
              • This principle should be applied to pre-construction cost estimates or post contract cost estimates.
            6. Detailed cost estimate:
              • It is a more detailed cost estimate prepared when the design is more developed.
              • "Detailed" refers to the number of items measured, rather than to the accuracies of the quantities estimated.
              • Some consultants call it "Preliminary Cost Estimate", and some call it "Cost Plan".
              • It may become the Budgetary Estimate if approved.
              • Pre-tender estimate (按工程量清單計算標底):
                • A pre-tender estimate is no longer an approximate estimate and is prepared by pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.
              • A logical sequence is like this:
                • Rough Indication of Costs => Detailed Cost Estimate => Cost Plan / Budgetary Estimate.

              Elemental cost classifications

              1. Pricing documents for tendering are usually arranged in trade by trade or works section orders or work breakdown structures according to the local standard method of measurement or local practice.

              2. Instead of following the same order, pre-construction cost estimating in many countries (not all) adopt an elemental cost classification, which divides the costs of a construction project into various parts ("elements") each serving a specific function or common purpose such that the costs of alternatives serving the same function or purpose can be compared, evaluated and selected irrespective of their trades, works sections, design, specification, materials or construction.

              3. Classifying the costs of a building (or other construction) into elements would facilitate: ​

                • Comparison of the costs of different design options serving the same elemental function 

                • Comparison with costs of other projects by elements

                • Rationalizing the budget allocation between different elements for better use 

                • Quicker estimating based on elemental quantities which are easier to measure 

                • Analysis of data for different projects on the same basis and classification.

              4. Different QS practices and ArchSD have different elemental classifications.

              5. ArchSD adopts the following Project Element Cost Model as described in the Standard Method of Measurement for Building Elements 2020 Edition published by the Architectural Services Department (https://www.archsd.gov.hk/media/publications-publicity/schedule-of-rates/asdsmmbe_2020.pdf):
              6. Many other places outside Hong Kong also have their own elemental cost classification systems, e.g.:
              7. International Cost Management Standard (ICMS) is a global elemental cost classification standard. The examples shown here are based on that standard.

              Construction floor area and gross floor area in Hong Kong

              1. For costing, leasing and sales of buildings and related land, people usually have to refer to unit cost or price per floor area of the buildings as the most important controlling parameter.
              2. However, there are many types of floor areas being defined for different purposes in Hong Kong or other places outside Hong Kong. An understanding of their possible differences is important.
              3. Quantity Surveyors measure the construction floor area (CFA) in order to estimate the total construction cost of a building.
              4. Lands leased by the Government in Hong Kong are subject to limitation on the gross floor areas (lease GFA) of the buildings which may be built on the land. Some of the construction floor area is not accountable for the lease GFA. The Lands Department is responsible for the control. Read the Lands Department's Practice Note on Accountable and Non-Accountable GFA under Lease at https://www.landsd.gov.hk/en/images/doc/1998_1A_text.pdf.
              5. Building plans have to be submitted to the Buildings Department for approval and consent before construction. The gross floor areas (GFA) are also controlled by the Buildings Regulations. Read the Buildings Department's Practice Note on Calculation of Gross Floor Area and Non-accountable Gross Floor Area at https://www.bd.gov.hk/doc/en/resources/codes-and-references/practice-notes-and-circular-letters/pnap/APP/APP002.pdf.
              6. The Lands Department's Practice Note says while the Lands Department is usually prepared to follow the Buildings Department's ruling in exemptions from GFA calculations, it reserves its right and absolute discretion to do otherwise in individual cases.
              7. There are further complications due to the use of saleable area for residential properties. See Cap. 621 Residential Properties (First-hand Sales) Ordinance at https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap621.

              International Property Measurement Standards

              1. The various International Property Measurement Standards at https://ipmsc.org/standards/ intend to unify the rules of measurement of various kinds of floor areas for different types of buildings.
              2. IPMS 1 (gross external floor area) and IPMS 2 (gross internal floor area) are referred to by ICMS.
              3. They should be the same for all types of buildings, but because of the different types of publications of the various IPMS standards, the text may vary.
              4. A consultation draft covering All Buildings is available for consultation at https://ipmsc.org/consultation/.
              5. Read this and appreciate the diagrammatic illustration.
              6. CFA in Hong Kong is close to IPMS 1 with one exception: accessible rooftop terraces are included in IPMS 1 but not in Hong Kong CFA.

              Need for historical cost analyses

              1. Before talking about the cost estimates, it may be appropriate to talk about cost analyses first.
              2. Cost analyses are need to:

              Cost analyses

              Example adopting ICMS

              ​​​​​​​

              Classify total costs

              1. A cost analysis analyses the awarded or final prices of a project and re-classify the costs following the same classification used for the cost estimates or cost plans.
              2.  When classified in elemental format, the cost of each element or sub-element is summed up into a single line item.
              3. The cost is called “elemental cost” in Hong Kong.

              Identify elemental quantities

              1. A single representative quantity is measured for that line item.
              2. The single quantity is called "elemental quantity" in Hong Kong. “representative” means that the quantity can best represent the cost changes in case of quantity changes.

              Get elemental unit rates

              1. The cost of that cost item is then divided by the elemental quantity to give a single all-inclusive rate.
              2. The single all-inclusive rate is called "elemental unit rate" in Hong Kong.
              3. That means:
                • elemental cost / elemental quantity = elemental unit rate,
                • or
                • elemental quantity x elemental unit cost = element cost,
                • depending on the order of presenting the columns in table form.
              4. The elemental unit rates are very useful when the cost of a new project is required to be estimated before any detailed design is available.

              Apply the elemental unit rates to new projects

              1. Elemental quantities can be measured for the new project and priced at elemental unit rates of the reference projects.
              2. There are not too many items of elemental quantities to be measured. The cost estimating process can therefore be very fast.
              3. Of course, the elemental unit rates may not be directly applicable to the new project.
              4. It should at least be adjusted for the changes in the price levels from the times it was applicable to the reference project to the time of the new project, and then for other changed factors.

              Get quantity ratios or factors

              1. A cost analysis should also contains quantity ratios or factors such as:
                • elevation area : floor area
                • concrete volume per floor area
                • formwork area per concrete volume or floor area
                • rebar weight per concrete volume or floor area
                • etc.  
              2. These quantity ratios can serve as useful references when estimating the costs of new projects.
              3. Apart from using the data in a cost analysis to estimate the cost of a new project in the absence of detailed design, the data can also be used to benchmark the cost of a new project after a more detailed cost estimate is done to ensure that the new project would not go out of order.
              4. Hong Kong Government uses this technique to control the costs of new project at the design stage.
              5. The Architectural Services Department has published a very detailed Project Cost Analysis Form.

              Changes in cost and price levels

              1. Due to changes in the market conditions, the unit rates for exactly the same description of work may change over time.

              2. Unit rates applicable in the past would need to be adjusted to the current level.

              3. Tender price or cost indices are therefore prepared to provide the adjustment factors.

              4. Tender price indices and cost indices can fluctuate at different rates because price = cost + profit, and the price may increase less than the cost increase in order to secure projects or may increase more in case the market is full.

              Different methods of approximate cost estimating
              計算概算的方法

              Different methods

              1. Unit method (common).
              2. Superficial method or area method (common).
              3. Cubic method (seldom used for buildings).
              4. Storey enclosure method (seldom used now).
              5. Elemental cost estimates (common):
                • Elemental quantity method
                • Approximate quantity method.
              6. Condensed elemental method using the most significant cost parameters.

              Pre-tender estimate:

              1. A pre-tender estimate is no longer an approximate cost estimate and is prepared by pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.

              Unit method (按功能單元個數計算)

              1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the number of functional units provided by the building x unit cost per functional unit.
              2. ICMS has suggested the following functional units for buildings: number of occupants | number of bedrooms | number of hospital beds | number of hotel rooms | number of car parking spaces | number of classrooms | number of students | number of passengers | number of boarding gates.
              3. The unit method is a crude method serving as an early indication of the probable order of cost of the average building of the relevant type.
              4. It is not useful for forecasting with high degree of accuracy the costs of newly proposed buildings of the same type because their designs can be very different.
              5. However, it may be used by clients and in particular government departments to serve as a cost yardstick controlling the budget of newly proposed projects.
              6. It is still also useful to serve a check that a unit cost per floor area may sound reasonable but, when expressed in unit cost per functional unit, the unit cost can be out of order because of excessive floor area per functional unit.

              Superficial method or area method (按樓面積計算)

              1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the floor area of the building x unit cost per floor area.
              2. This is the most commonly used method, possibly because the sales and rental prices are also expressed in unit cost per floor area.
              3. Note however that there are many definitions of "floor area". The same definition should be consistently applied.

              Cubic method (seldom used for buildings) (按樓體積計算(現少用))

              1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the volume of the building x unit cost per volume.
              2. In theory, the volume can take care of the different storey heights of the building.
              3. This is not commonly used probably because the floor areas are more readily available, and calculating the volumes would mean a further step to be done.
              4. The cubic method may be useful for site formation works or civil engineering works involving massive volume of work.

              ​​​​​​​Storey enclosure method (seldom used now) (按樓板及外殼面積加權計算(現少用)

              1. In essence, the estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of the weighted areas of bottom slabs (basement or ground), suspended floor slabs, roof slabs, and walls below and above ground x unit cost per total weighted area.
              2. Each type of slabs or walls are given different fixed weightings to reflect their relative ratios of costs.
              3. The calculation is much more complicated than the superficial method or the cubic method.
              4. With so many varieties of construction components and materials, whether the fixed weightings can truly reflect the relative ratios of costs is doubtful.
              5. This method is seldom used these days.

              Elemental quantity method (按功能分部工程量計算)

              1. The building cost is classified into different elements (or Groups or Sub-Groups as used in ICMS as shown under the "Sections" column in the example below which follows ICMS classifications).
              2. Each element is represented by an appropriate elemental quantity which best represents the elemental cost (i.e., changing proportionally).
              3. It can be seen from the example below that the elemental quantities generally adopt the values of the most significant cost parameters discussed above.
              4. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (elemental quantity x elemental unit rate).
              5. It takes into account the different forms, provisions and standard of the proposed new building better than the average unit cost per floor area.
              6. It is therefore a more accurate method than the superficial method.
              7. However, while the elemental quantities are simple to measure, the elemental unit rates would rely on reliable cost data from other projects or may need careful build-ups.
              8. This method should only be used at the early stage of design.
              9. Note that "Post-completion loose furniture, fittings and equipment" as used above based on ICMS 2 has been changed to "Production and loss furniture, fittings and equipment" in ICMS 3.
              10. At the time of the elemental quantity cost estimates, there would not be much details to measure approximate quantities and one has to rely on past cost analyses or some estimated quantity factors and ratios to estimate the elemental unit rates.
              11. The elemental unit rates, quantity factors and ratios should be critically reviewed to see whether they should remain unchanged or adjusted when the design of the building is changed even though the elemental quantities can remain unchanged.
              12. The price levels of past projects must be adjusted to the present day for use.

              Approximate quantity method (按分項大約工程量計算)

              1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (approximate quantity of major item of work x unit rate per quantity of major item of work inclusive of costs of minor items):
                • It does not usually show the elemental quantities and elemental unit rates just to save time.
                • As the design is more developed, it is possible to measure the work constituting the building more accurately and apply more appropriate unit rates relevant to the materials and standard chosen.
                • The quantities are approximate to reduce the time to measure so that a quicker cost estimate can be produced to reflect the updated cost of the design and enable any subsequent measures to control any unexpected costly design.

                Condensed elemental method using the most significant cost parameters

                1. Users of the elemental quantity method may find that many elemental quantities are the same for different elements and can in fact be reduced into a few most significant cost parameters:​​​​​​​​​​​​
                  • Floor area (above ground + below ground)
                  • Ground area (= roof area) 
                  • Transfer structure area
                  • External elevation area 
                  • Basement screen wall area or more effectively basement volume of excavation
                  • Site area
                  • External area (site area - ground area) 
                  • Number of equipment 
                  • Refrigeration tonnage 
                  • Other elemental quantities.
                2. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (quantity of the above cost parameter x composite unit rate per quantity of cost parameter).
                3. This can provide a quick and equally reliable cost estimate though not as detailed as the elemental quantity cost estimate.

                ​​​​​​​​​​​​​Contents of cost estimates
                ​​​​​​​概算的內容

                1. Cover page:
                  • Estimate Number
                  • Project Name 
                  • Project Location 
                  • Estimate Date
                  • List of Contents (if simple enough to list here)
                  • Consultants’ Names.
                2. Contents page (for longer list)
                3. Grand Summary (in table form):
                  ​​​​​​​大匯總: 

                  • Total Cost of Each Section of the Project 
                    建設項目每區域的總造價
                  • Floor Area of Each Section 
                    每區域的樓面面積
                  • Unit Cost per Floor Area.
                    ​每區域的樓面面積的單價。
                4. Descriptions: 
                  編製說明: 

                  • Project Name 
                    項目名稱
                  • Project Location 
                    項目地點
                  • Scope of the Estimate 
                    估算範圍
                  • Areas: 
                    面積:
                    • Construction Floor Area / Covered Floor Area 
                      建築面積/有蓋樓面面積
                    • Ground Area 
                      地面面積
                    • Site Area 
                      地塊面積
                    • Lease Gross Floor Area 
                      地契樓面面積
                    • (Non-)Accountable GFA 
                      可豁面/不豁面地契樓面面積
                    • Bay Window Area 
                      窗臺面積
                  • Basis of the Estimate:
                    估算依據:
                    • Drawings used 
                      依據的圖紙
                  • Price Levels:
                    價格水準:
                    • Current Prices 
                      現行價格
                    • Fluctuations from Date of Preparing the Estimate to Tendering 
                      由編製到招標的價格浮動
                    • Fluctuations from Tendering to Completion of Construction 
                      由招標到竣工的價格浮動
                  • Outline Specification of Design and Materials 
                    分部設計及用料大綱
                  • Finishes Schedule 
                    裝飾表
                  • Exclusions. 
                    不包項目。
                5. Elemental Summary of each Section (in table form): 
                  每區域的功能分部匯總:

                  • Floor Area of the Section 
                    該區域的樓面面積
                  • Item Reference
                    項目編碼
                  • Total Cost of Each Element of the Section 
                    該區域的每功能分部總造價
                  • Unit Cost per Floor Area 
                    每功能分部的樓面面積單價
                  • % Proportion of each Element. 
                    每功能分部所占百分比。
                6. Detailed Build-up (Arranged by Elements or Cost Groups):
                  ​​​​​​​​具體項目(按功能分部排列):

                  • ​Item Reference
                    ​​​​​​​編碼
                  • Descriptions
                    子目說明
                  • Quantities (rounded off to tens or thousands)
                    數量(拾位元或百位元整數)
                  • Rates (rounded off to two significant figures)
                    單價(兩個有效數字)
                  • Extension (rounded off to ten thousands)
                    合價(萬位元整數)
                  • Elemental Totals
                    功能分部總價
                  • Possible additional information: 
                    可能的附加資料:

                    • Elemental Quantities
                      功能分部數量

                    • Unit Costs per Elemental Quantities.
                      ​功能分部單價。

                ​​​​​​​Adjust published unit costs per floor area

                1. Some Consultant QS firms publish unit costs per floor area for public information.
                2. When using these unit costs, care should be exercised to understand the scope of inclusions and exclusions, and their applicability.
                3. The General Practice Division of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors has published a Building Cost Pro-Forma for Private Sector Developments in Hong Kong.pdf.
                4. This should serve as a useful checklist, but the items and figures suggested there should be verified for individual project.

                Presentation of cost estimates

                1. Rounding off:
                  • The quantities, unit rates and costs should be suitably rounded off.
                2. Word wrapping:
                  • Text in table cells should be word-wrapped to avoid hiding of text at the end.
                3. Comparison tables:
                  • When the cost estimates need to give comparison tables to show different options and the differences between options to help reading and appreciation of the relative costs, instead of showing all the columns of each option together, the columns can be re-arranged in the following sequence to save some space and enable easier reading:
                  • Item

                    Section

                    Elemental Cost
                    HK$

                    Difference from Original HK$

                    Cost per m2 CFA
                    HK$

                    Remarks

                    Original

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Original

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Item

                    Section

                    Elemental Qty

                    Elemental Unit and Description

                    Elemental Unit Rate

                    Remarks

                    Original

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Original

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                    Option 1

                    Option 2

                  • When spanning over more than one page, the Item and Section columns and column header rows should be repeated.
                  • The contents under the Remarks columns can be very flexible, for adjustment methods, calculations, rationale, etc., subject only to space limitation.
                  • The remarks can be “Assumed no change”, “Original qty x 2”, “Original rate x 1.2”, etc.
                  • If there is not enough space, and the remarks are repeating, just insert “(a)”, “(b)”, “(c)”, in the Remarks columns, and define them below the table to mean:
                    • Legend:
                    • (a) Assumed no change
                    • (b) Original qty x 2
                    • (c) Original rate x 1.2 for higher rate due to complexity
                  • Instead of showing the quantity and rate adjustments separately, the adjustment can be made directly against the cost, such as:
                    • Legend:
                    • (a) Option 1 CFA / Original CFA = 2
                    • (b) Original cost x 2
                    • (c) Original cost x 2 x 1.2 for higher rate due to complexity
                    • (d) Original cost x (new elemental qty / original elemental qty) x (new elemental unit rate / original elemental unit rate)
                  • Example (d) can in fact save the need to show the columns for elemental qty, unit and unit rates.
                  • The adjustment calculations can also cover inflationary factors.

                Comments on specific ICMS Sub-Groups

                Foundation piling

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes all foundation piling underneath the building with or without basement.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • Foundation piling supports the whole building.
                  • Its costs are more related to the total construction floor area (CFA) of the building including the basement CFA, which should be used as the elemental quantity.
                  • Elemental unit rate:
                    • Equals to unit cost per construction floor area based on some similar projects.
                3. Approximate quantities
                  • The costs can be estimated, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, based on:
                    • Piling plant mobilisation and demobilisation – Item
                    • Piles – Number with each length/depth stated or total length/depth
                    • Pile testing – Item.
                  • It should be noted that the pile depths in ground and the pile core lengths are two different things.
                  • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.

                Foundations up to top of lowest floor slabs

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes that shown in blue below (pile caps, footings, substructure columns and walls, and lowest floor slabs and beams) beyond the footprint of the basement, and excludes foundation piling.
                  • Foundations (excluding piles) underneath the basement are usually integrated with the basement bottom and should therefore be included in the “Basement sides and bottom”.
                  • Therefore, this Sub-Group's costs are not related to the basement footprint or the basement floor areas.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • Pile caps, footings and substructure columns and walls, which support the whole building, are more related to the total CFA and building height.
                  • Lowest floor slabs and beams are more related to the ground area (GA) of the building.
                  • On the conservative side, the total CFA should be used as the elemental quantity to obtain the elemental unit rate for future references.
                  • However, when applying this elemental unit rate to a building of significantly different building height and different CFA to GA ratio (approximately equal to the number of floors), the elemental unit rate can be broken into two parts for application.
                  • For example, from the cost analysis of a reference building:
                  • The unit rates at (a) and (d) can then be applied to the proposed building, subject to further adjustments for other dissimilarities.
                  • Similar method can be adopted to split the elemental unit rates into different parts to handle those parts which do not vary in proportion to the elemental quantity.
                3. Approximate quantities
                  • For approximate quantity cost estimates, the costs can be, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, estimated based on:
                    • Excavation (rates to include disposal) – volume of excavation from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer with allowance for working spaces beyond the volume of the concrete work
                    • Lateral supports in the form of planking and strutting for shallow excavation – allowed for in the rates for excavation
                    • Lateral supports in the form of planking and strutting for deep excavation – as described for “Basement sides and bottom”
                    • Raft footings, pile caps, column bases, wall footings, strap beams and tie beams – concrete volume, formwork area and reinforcement weight
                    • Substructure walls and columns – ditto
                    • Lowest floor slabs and beams – ditto
                    • Lift pits – number.
                  • ICMS gives a good checklist of the above.
                  • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.
                  • The concrete member sizes can be based on the preliminary design drawings.
                  • Simplification into approximate average sizes x number can speed up the measurement.
                  • It may even be quicker to estimate the average thickness per the building footprint from the preliminary design drawings or from some reference projects of similar height or adjusted for the differences in heights.
                  • Following the same logic, the composite elemental unit rate build-up can be as follows:
                    • Average concrete thickness / building footprint @ $/m3
                    • Average formwork area / building footprint @ $/m2
                    • Average concrete thickness / building footprint x steel ratio kg/m3 concrete @ $/kg
                    • Average excavation depth / building footprint @ $/m3
                    • Sum of the above = composite rate / building footprint
                  • Of course, the concrete thickness and steel ratio should have taken into account the building height.

                Basement sides and bottom

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes that shown in blue below (sides and bottom) of a basement and excavation for the basement, and excludes foundation piling.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • This is a difficult Sub-Group for choosing the appropriate elemental unit because:
                    • part of its costs is related to the volume of the basement (excavation, disposal, and shoring and strutting)
                    • part related to the basement footprint (basement bottom)
                    • part related to the side area (basement side and vertical retaining support which can be twice the basement depth).
                  • The volume of the basement should be the best choice for use as the elemental quantity.
                  • The basement floor area may also be a reflection of the volume.
                  • However, it would be better to estimate the costs from a number of approximate quantities rather than a single elemental quantity.
                3. Approximate quantities
                  • For approximate quantity cost estimates, the costs can be, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, estimated based on:
                    • Excavation (rates to include disposal) – volume of excavation from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer with allowance for working spaces beyond the volume of the concrete work
                    • Vertical lateral support – area of excavated surfaces retained (from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer) x 2 or more to account for the embedded depth below the blinding layer
                    • Horizontal or raking shoring to lateral support - area of excavated surfaces retained (suitable for raking shoring) or volume of excavation (suitable for flying shoring, i.e. horizontal shoring spanning across the whole site with intermediate vertical posts to support), unless more detailed measurement is used
                    • Bottom slabs and blinding (including all foundations underneath but excluding piles) – concrete volume, formwork area and reinforcement weight
                    • Basement sides – area
                    • Vertical waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and skin wall – area of tanking
                    • Horizontal waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and topping slab – area of tanking
                    • Insulation – area
                    • Lift pits, sump pits, sleeves – number of lift pits and sump pits.
                  • ICMS gives a good checklist of the above.
                  • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.
                  • The concrete member sizes can be based on the average thicknesses from the preliminary design drawings or from some reference projects of similar height or adjusted for the differences in heights.
                  • Simpler cost build-up can take the following form:
                    • Volume of excavation – composite rates to cover excavation, disposal, and horizontal or raking shoring per m3 of excavation
                    • Area of basement bottom – composite rates to cover all horizontal elements, with different ratios per basement bottom area to account for different elements
                    • Area of basement sides – composite rates to cover all vertical elements, with different ratios per basement side area to account for different elements
                    • Lump sum – to cover other standalone elements.

                ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Basement suspended floors (up to top of ground floor slabs)

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes all structural walls and columns, beams, slabs and staircases inside the basement, but excludes basement sides and bottom.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity should be the CFA of the basement.
                  • Elemental unit rate build-up (per basement CFA):
                    • Similar to that for the "Frames and slabs".

                Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs)

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes all structural walls and columns, beams, slabs and staircases above the top of ground floor slabs.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity should be the CFA above ground, not the total CFA including the basement CFA.
                  • Elemental unit rate build-up (per CFA above ground):
                    • Concrete m3 concrete / m2 floor area @ $/m3
                      Formwork m2 formwork / m2 floor area @ $/m2
                      Reinforcement

                      kg reinforcement / m3 concrete

                      x m3 concrete / m2 floor area

                      or

                      kg reinforcement / m2 floor area

                      @ $/kg
                  • The quantity ratios are usually based on some similar projects or by sampling based on a typical bay.

                Roof beams and slabs for Buildings under "Structure"

                1. Scope
                  • Roofs can occur at the top of buildings or at lower floors. Any suspended floor without cover above is considered as a roof. 
                  • “roof beams and slabs” for Buildings should also include such roofs at the top or at lower floors.
                  • In principle, the roof area on plan at various levels should be equal to the projected building footprint area on plan.
                    • ​​​​​​​
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity should be the roof area if roof beams and slabs are separately estimated.
                  • Otherwise, it should be part of the total CFA including the basement CFA.

                External elevations

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes all external walls including applied finishes, cladding, curtain walls, windows, doors, shop fronts and shutters on the external elevations, but excludes external structural walls.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity should be the external elevation area.
                  • ICMS defines it as "total area of external wall finishes, facade cladding and curtain walls, windows, doors, shop fronts, roller shutters, fire shutters, etc. on the external elevations including all surfaces of

                    external railings, parapets and features, but ignoring the presence of canopies".

                  • Elemental unit rate build-up (per elevation area):
                    • Aluminium windows a% elevation area @ $/m2
                      Finishes on structural walls, columns and beams b% elevation area @ $/m2
                      External non-structural walls and finishes c% elevation area @ $/m2
                      Roller shutters d% elevation area @ $/m2
                    • a%+b%+c%+d% = 100% elevation area.
                    • The percentages are approximate proportions of the total external elevation area of a sampled section of the elevation.

                Roof finishes, skylights and landscaping (including waterproofing and insulation)

                1. Scope

                  • This Sub-Group include those to such roofs at the top or at lower floors.

                2. Elemental quantity

                  • Roof area

                3. Element unit rate build-up:

                  • Similar to other Sub-Groups.

                Internal divisions

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​all kinds of divisions including internal windows, doors and shutters.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA.
                  • Element unit rate build-up (per CFA):
                    • Internal non-structural concrete walls m2 walls / m2 floor area @ $/m2
                      Internal brick walls m2 walls / m2 floor area @ $/m2
                      Doors No. of doors / m2 floor area @ $/No.
                      etc.    
                    • The quantity factors are based on a similar project or approximate wall areas per construction floor area of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.
                    • The wall areas have door openings deducted.
                  • The elemental quantity can also be the total wall areas without deducting door openings
                  • The elemental unit rate build-up will then be (per total wall area):

                  • Internal non-structural concrete walls a% of wall area @ $/m2
                    Internal brick walls b% of wall area @ $/m2
                    Extra for doors No. of doors / m2 wall area

                    @ $/No.#

                    etc.    
                    • a% + b% = 100%.
                    • # = after deducting cost of wall.

                    • The percentages are approximate proportions of the total wall area of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.

                Fittings and sundries

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group basically includes all the metal work and joinery, and interior landscaping.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA, or the relevant functional quantity.
                  • Elemental unit rate:
                    • Generally based on similar projects.

                Finishes under cover

                1. Scope
                  • This Sub-Group includes all floor and ceiling finishes and false ceilings whether internal or external, and internal wall finishes and cladding.
                2. Elemental quantity
                  • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA.
                  • Elemental unit rate build-up of floor finishes (internal and external) (per CFA):
                    • Floor finish A a% of floor area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Floor finish B b% of floor area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Floor finish C c% of floor area / CFA

                      @ $/m2

                      Add 10% for skirting    
                    • a%+b%+c% = an estimated percentage of floor area / CFA after deducting voids, and wall and column base areas, i.e. less than 100% of CFA.
                  • Elemental unit rate build-up of internal wall finishes and cladding (per CFA):

                    • Wall finish A a% of wall area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Wall finish B b% of wall area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Wall finish C c% of wall area / CFA

                      @ $/m2

                    • The quantity factors are based on a similar project or approximate internal wall finishes areas per CFA of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.
                    • Note the approximate formula: internal wall finishes = internal wall area x 2 + external wall area.
                    • False ceiling voids and unfinished lift shafts would affect this formula.
                  • Elemental unit rate build-up of ceiling finishes and false ceilings (internal and external) (per CFA):

                    • Ceiling finish A a% of ceiling area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Ceiling finish B b% of ceiling area / CFA @ $/m2
                      Ceiling finish C c% of ceiling area / CFA

                      @ $/m2

                      • a%+b%+c% = an estimated percentage of the ceiling area / CFA after deducting voids, and wall and column areas, but adding beam sides, i.e. more than 100% of CFA.

                Services and equipment

                1. The costs of services and equipment are generally estimated based on $/CFA for each sub-system.
                2. If part of the building is not served by a sub-system, the CFA used may be only the area served.
                3. In the case of toilets and kitchens, the estimate may be based on the number of toilets and kitchens.
                4. For a more detailed cost analysis or cost estimate, the costs can be broken down into the following portions:
                  • Costs related to main equipment (chillers, cooling towers, air handling units, transformers, boilers, etc.)
                  • Costs related to terminal service outlets (air grilles, diffusers, lighting points, power points, sprinklers, speakers, cameras, sanitary fittings, etc.)
                  • Costs related vertical up-feed and down-feed
                  • Costs related to horizontal distribution
                  • Costs related to isolated locations (e.g. toilets, kitchens, plant rooms, etc.).

                Movement systems

                1. While using the CFA as the elemental quantity for movement systems cannot be treated as wrong particularly when the CFA is big and there are many lifts and escalators, the cost should better be estimated based on cost per number of lift or escalator.

                Elemental quantities based on % of other costs

                1. It would be more appropriate to use % of other costs (base costs) as the elemental quantities to allow for preliminaries and risk allowances as the base costs may change when the CFAs remain the same.

                Steel ratios

                1. The steel ratios of structural walls and columns should be bigger than those for beams and slabs.

                Unit cost / CFA of taller buildings

                1. The $/CFA of foundations, substructure and structure should be higher for taller buildings because of increased loading on the lower floors and increased wind load.
                2. The $/CFA of services and equipment should be higher for taller buildings because of longer running lengths of vertical pipes and cables, and increased lift speeds and capacities.
                3. Refuge floor would need to be added.
                4. Taller buildings take longer times to complete, causing higher unit rates and higher preliminaries costs. While it is usual to use the same % for preliminaries for different projects, when carrying out comparative cost studies for buildings with very different construction periods, the % should reflect the differences. Instead of adjusting all the unit rates, it may as well be simpler to adjust only the preliminaries to also cover the higher unit rates.

                Composite rates for approximate quantities
                ​​​​​​​組合單價的測算

                1. Composite items:
                  • The approximate quantity method measures major work items as composite items so as to reduce the need and time to break down the work items into components for detailed measurement.

                  • Examples are:

                    • lump sum allowances for mobilisation and demobilisation of major construction plant
                    • m or No. piles of specific cross-sectional size

                    • m3 excavation including disposal (backfill or remove from site)

                    • m2 or m concrete members including formwork and reinforcement
                    • m2 brick or block work including lintols
                    • m2 cladding or curtain walls or window walls or windows including glazing
                    • m or No. extra over m2 or m for special features
                    • No. doors including frames, architraves, fixings, glazing, painting, fire rating, etc.
                    • No. of major metal or joinery fittings
                    • m2 roof finishes including surface layer, protective screed, waterproofing layer, levelling screed, insulation, etc.
                    • m2 rendering including surface treatment
                    • m2 plastering including painting
                    • m2 tiling including screeding
                    • No. of vertical stacks of water supply or disposal pipes including all pipe fittings and ancillaries
                    • No. of kitchens or bath rooms or other serviced rooms including all sanitary fittings and branches 
                    • No. of sanitary fittings including all accessories
                    • No. of terminal M&E fittings including conduits or wiring or cables
                    • No. of main M&E equipment
                    • m conduits or wiring or cables
                    • m2 ducts
                    • lump sum allowances for sundries
                    • lump sum for or No. of costly tests
                  • Different sizes or types may be separated or grouped together depending on their cost significance.
                  • Average sizes may be stated or varying sizes deemed.
                2. Composite rates:

                  • This would require the building up of composite rates for such composite items.

                  • Buffers should be allowed in the approximate quantities and composite rates to cover the costs of unmeasured minor items.

                3. Using BIM:

                  • When preliminary BIM models are used to generate quantities for preparing cost estimates, the quantities would not reflect the work items not modelled. Extra allowances in the approximate quantities or the composite rates should be made to cover the costs of unmodelled but necessary items.

                Build-up of composite rates using properly set out dimension tables

                 

                1. The following gives examples of composite items and build-ups of composite rates.​​​​​​​

                2. Example 1:

                  • ​​​​​
                  • Note that in Hong Kong, beam concrete and formwork are measured those parts below slab soffit. Beam reinforcement includes those at the intersection of slab and beam.
                3. Example 2:
                  • ​​​​​​​​​
                  • Note that a typical bay of 6 x 6 m is measured to average out the beam quantities.
                  • Note also that the four beams around each typical bay are shared with adjacent slabs, and their quantities are therefore halved.
                4. Example 3:
                  • ​​​​​​​
                5. Example 4:

                Build-up of composite rates using compact format for showing in the Cost Estimate

                1. The following shows another method to present the composite rate calculations in the Cost Estimate.
                2. Example 5:
                  • Note that the reinforcement refers to the concrete quantities already calculated at cells E15 and E23 above.
                3. Example 6:
                  • Note that the function FORMULATEXT() is used to display the formula of the quantity of 0.48 above for checking. The cell entry must be preceded with "=" for it to be recognised as a formula.
                  • Using this function will eliminate the need to type the formula separately as an explanation in addition to entering the formula in the calculation cell and risking mismatch errors.
                  • The formula column can be hidden or deleted when issuing the Cost Estimate.
                  • Note also that the estimated costs have been rounded to the nearest 10,000, using the formula "=ROUND(Rate*Qty, -4)".
                  • This would give the image that the figure is an approximate estimate rather than an accurate figure.
                4. Example 7:
                5. Example 8:
                6. Example 9:
                  • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
                7. Example 10:

                Prepare cash flow tables
                編製現金流量表

                Use S-curve 用S線圖

                ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

                1. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Divide the horizontal axis into parts equal to the number of months of construction.
                  ​​​​​​​將水平軸按施工的月份數目分段
                2. For each month, interpolate from the curve the cumulative payment percentage on the vertical axis.
                  利用曲線找出每個月在垂直軸相對的累計進度百份率
                3. Find the monthly payment percentages from the cumulative percentages.
                  用累計進度百份率計出每月進度百份率
                4. Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost to obtain the monthly payment values.
                  每月進度百份率乘總造價得出每月進度款。

                Use Bar Chart Programmes 用條形進度計畫表

                1. Follow the bar chart programme, assign the monthly payment percentages for each activity bar.
                  跟從條形進度計企劃表,對每條活動配以每月進度百份率
                2. Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost of each activity bar to obtain the monthly payment values.
                  將每月進度百份率乘該條活動的造價得出每月進度款
                3. Ensure that the total of each activity bar is correct.
                  確保每條活動的合計無誤。

                For both methods

                1. Separate stage payments.
                  要把分期付款及大型採購分列
                2. Separate Retention.
                  要把保修金分列
                3. Watch out time lag between work carried out, payment certification and honouring of payment.
                  注意施工、批款及付款的時間差。
                4. Payment terms:

                  • Usual payment terms for construction contracts in Hong Kong:

                    • no advance payment; 
                    • monthly payments for materials delivered to site and work done subject to 10% retention on the gross total up to a maximum equal to 5% of the original Contract Sum; 
                    • half of the retention to be released upon Practical Completion / Substantial Completion (*); and 
                    • the balance to be released upon the issue of the Defects Rectification Certificate / Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects / Maintenance Certificate (*) after rectification of defects found during the Defects Liability Period / Maintenance Period (*) usually of 12 months.
                    • (*) = Different terms used by different standard forms of contract.

                  • Possible payment terms for lift and escalator contracts / sub-contracts:

                    • 10% upon award;
                    • 20% when ready for shipment;
                    • 30% on delivery to site;
                    • 25% on issue of Use Permit by the EMSD;
                    • 10% on Practical Completion / Substantial Completion; and
                    • balance upon the issue of the Defects Rectification Certificate (as above).
                  • Suppliers:

                    • Usually require deposits or advance payments which can be moderately up to 30% or sometimes up to 50%.

                  • Lower tiers sub-contractors:

                    • Require shorter payment periods and no retention.

                Reconciliation
                概算變化的解釋

                1. Presented vertically: 
                  垂直列出:
                2. Presented side by side: 
                  並排表示:
                  ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
                3. A legend of “(a)”, “(b)”, “(c)”, etc. can be used for stating common reasons, similar to the legends suggested for “comparison tables” under “Presentation of Cost Estimates” above.

                Pre-tender Estimates
                ​​​​​​​標底

                1. Method:
                  • By pricing the Bills of Quantities before formal issue of tender documents or before return of tenders.
                    在發出招標檔前或在回標前利用工程量清單套取單價計價。
                2. Purposes:
                  • For checking whether the cost so priced is within the previous estimate and the Budget 
                    以檢查得出的總價是否仍在前概算或投資預算之內
                  • For making design changes and issuing tender addendum to keep the costs within the Budget 
                    作出設計修改並發出招標檔變更通知以便維持造價在投資預算之內
                  • For checking against tenders returned for reasonableness 
                    用作評核回標價的合理性。

                End of Page

                 

                International Cost Management Standard

                International Cost Management Standard KCTang Tue, 15/03/2022 - 03:10

                 

                Go to End

                Note

                • 15 Mar 2022: Expanded.
                • 7 Mar 2022: Split from Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control.

                Intro

                1. International Cost Management Standard (ICMS) (https://icms-coalition.org/the-standard/), formally called "International Construction Measurement Standards", is intended to provide global consistency in presenting construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions.

                Aims

                1. Provide global consistency in classifying, defining, measuring, recording, analysing and presenting entire construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions at a project, regional, state, national or international level.
                2. Allow costs and carbon emissions to be managed and potentially reduced.
                3. Allow:
                  • construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions to be consistently and transparently benchmarked (comparative benchmarking)
                  • the causes of differences in life cycle costs and carbon emissions between projects to be identified (option appraisal)
                  • properly informed decisions on the design and location of construction projects to be made at the best value for money (investment decision-making) and
                  • data to be used with confidence for construction project financing and investment, decision-making, and related purposes (certainty).

                Characteristics

                1. Global: co-existing with the locals.
                2. High level.
                3. For the first time, building works, civil engineering works and carbon emissions are now also covered by the same classification at the high level.
                4. Same for costs and carbon emissions.

                Timeline

                1. 17 June 2015: Formation of ICMS Coalition – a non-governmental, not-for-profit professional coalition.
                2. November 2015: Standards Setting Committee starting to work.
                3. July 2017: Release of the 1st Edition covering capital construction costs of building and civil engineering works,
                4. August 2019: Release of the 2nd Edition extended to cover other life cycle costs and more civil engineering project types at the PAQS Congress in Malaysia.
                5. November 2021: Release of the 3rd Edition extended to cover carbon emissions and more civil engineering project types. Change of names to International Cost Management Standard and Standard Setting Committee.

                Evolution of cost classification

                 

                1. "elements" in the traditional QS sense was called "Cost Groups" and "Cost Sub-Groups" in ICMS 1 and 2.
                2. With the addition of carbon emissions in ICMS 3, it is now called "Groups" and "Sub-Groups" to make them common for costs and carbon emissions.

                Hierarchical framework

                1. Simple
                  • This framework is simpler than that commonly used in Hong Kong, which is for building works only.
                2. Shared groups
                  • Construction, Renewal and Maintenance all share the same Groups.
                3. Composite and prefabricated work
                  • It is covered.
                4. Development budget
                  • For new developments, the total of the Acquisition Costs and Construction Costs represents the capital cost of development or development budgetary cost.

                Codes

                1. Code: 01.2.03.030
                  • Meaning: Buildings: Construction: Structure: Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs).
                Level 1 Project Type 01. Buildings
                Level 2 Category 2. Construction
                Level 3 Group 03. Structure
                Level 4 Sub-Group 030 Frame and Slabs

                Relationship between ICMS, LCC and WLC

                1. ‘Occupancy Costs’ are considered part of the ‘Non-Construction Costs’.

                2. Compatible with ISO 15686-5:2017 Buildings and constructed assets – Service life planning – Part 5: Life-cycle costing.

                Carbon reporting framework

                1. The reporting structures for costs and carbon emissions are identical.

                Groups and Sub-Groups

                Acquisition Groups and Sub-Groups

                1. Carbon emissions are reported for Acquisition only if they are significant.
                2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.
                Code Description
                    Group (Level 3)
                    Sub-Group (Level 4)
                 
                1.   Acquisition Costs (AC) | Acquisition Carbon Emissions (AE) (each Sub-Group includes Risk Allowances)
                  01. Site acquisition
                  01.010 Costs and premium required to procure site
                  01.020 Compensation to existing occupiers
                  01.030 Demolition, removal and modification of existing properties by way of payment to existing owners instead of carrying out physical work
                  01.040 Contributions for the preservation of heritage, culture and environment
                  01.050 Related fees to agents, lawyers, and the like
                  01.060 Related taxes and statutory charges
                  02. Administrative, finance, legal and marketing expenses
                  02.010 Client’s general office overheads
                  02.020 Client’s project-specific administrative expenses:
                    in-house project management and design team
                    supporting project staff
                    project office venue, furniture and equipment if not included in Constructor’s preliminaries | site overheads
                    stores and workshops
                    safety and insurances
                    staff training
                    accommodation and travelling expenses for in-house team and external parties
                  02.030 Interest and finance costs
                  02.040 Legal expenses
                  02.050 Accounting expenses
                  02.060 Sales, leasing, marketing, advertising and promotional expenses
                  02.070 Taxes and statutory charges related to sales and lease
                  02.080 License and permit charges for operation and use

                Construction | Renewal | Maintenance Groups and Sub-Groups: Buildings

                1. Carbon emissions are reported at the Sub-Group level by exception.
                2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.
                Code Description
                    Group (Level 3)
                    Sub-Group (Level 4)
                 
                2.   Construction Costs (CC) | Construction Carbon Emissions (CE)
                3.   Renewal Costs (RC) | Renewal Carbon Emissions (RE)
                5.   Maintenance Costs (MC) | Maintenance Carbon Emissions (ME
                    (CC | CE, RC | RE, and MC | ME share the same Groups below, so far as applicable. Those separated by ‘ | ’ in [ ] are respective alternative terms.)
                  01. Demolition, site preparation and formation
                  01.010 Site survey and ground investigation
                  01.020 Environmental treatment
                  01.030 Sampling of hazardous or useful materials or conditions
                  01.040 Temporary fencing
                  01.050 Demolition of existing buildings and support to adjacent structures
                  01.060 Site surface clearance (clearing, grubbing, topsoil stripping, tree felling, minor earthwork, removal)
                  01.070 Tree transplant
                  01.080 Site formation and slope treatment
                  01.090 Temporary surface drainage and dewatering
                  01.100 Temporary protection, diversion and relocation of public utilities
                  01.110 Erosion control
                  02. Substructure
                  02.010 Foundation piling and underpinning:
                    mobilisation and demobilisation
                    trial piles and caisson
                    permanent piles and caisson
                    pile and caisson testing
                    underpinning
                  02.020 Foundations up to top of lowest floor slabs:
                    excavation and disposal
                    lateral supports
                    raft footings, pile caps, column bases, wall footings, strap beams, tie beams
                    substructure walls and columns
                    lowest floor slabs and beams (excluding and beyond basement bottom slabs)
                    lift pits
                    composite or prefabricated work
                  02.030 Basement sides and bottom:
                    excavation and disposal
                    lateral supports
                    bottom slabs and blinding
                    sides
                    vertical waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and skin wall
                    horizontal waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and topping slab
                    insulation
                    lift pits, sump pits, sleeves
                    composite or prefabricated work
                  03. Structure
                  03.010 Structural removal and alterations
                  03.020 Basement suspended floors (up to top of ground floor slabs):
                    structural walls and columns
                    beams and slabs
                    staircases
                  03.030 Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs):
                    structural walls and columns
                    upper floor beams and slabs
                    roof beams and slabs
                    staircases
                    fireproofing to steel structure
                  03.040 Tanks, pools, sundries
                  03.050 Composite or prefabricated work
                  04. Architectural works | Non-structural works
                  04.010 Non-structural removal and alterations
                  04.020 External elevations:
                    non-structural external walls and features
                    external wall finishes except cladding
                    facade cladding and curtain walls
                    external windows
                    external doors
                    external shop fronts
                    roller shutters and fire shutters
                  04.030 Roof finishes, skylights and landscaping (including waterproofing and insulation):
                    roof finishes
                    skylights
                    other roof features
                    roof landscaping (hard and soft)
                  04.040 Internal divisions:
                    non-structural internal walls and partitions
                    shop fronts
                    toilet cubicles
                    moveable partitions
                    cold rooms
                    internal doors
                    internal windows
                    roller shutters and fire shutters
                    sundry concrete work
                  04.050 Fittings and sundries:
                    balustrades, railings and handrails
                    staircases and catwalk not forming part of the structure, cat ladders
                    cabinets, cupboards, shelves, counters, benches, notice boards, blackboards
                    exit signs, directory signs
                    window and door dressings
                    decorative features
                    interior landscaping
                    access panels, fire service cabinets
                    sundries
                  04.060 Finishes under cover:
                    floor finishes (internal and external)
                    internal wall finishes and cladding
                    ceiling finishes and false ceilings (internal or external)
                  04.070 Builder’s work in connection with services:
                    plinth, bases
                    fire-proofing enclosure
                    hoisting beams, lift pit separation screens, lift shaft separator beams
                    suspended manholes
                    cable trenches, trench covers
                    sleeves, openings and the like not allowed for in ‘Fittings and sundries’
                  04.080 Composite or prefabricated work
                  05. Services and equipment
                  05.010 Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems/air conditioners:
                    seawater system
                    cooling water system
                    chilled water system
                    heating water system
                    steam and condensate system
                    fuel oil system
                    water treatment
                    air handling and distribution system
                    condensate drain system
                    unitary air-conditioning system
                    mechanical ventilation system
                    kitchen ventilation system
                    fume and smoke extraction system
                    anaesthetic gas-extraction system
                    window and split-type air conditioners
                    air-curtains
                    fans
                    related electrical and control systems
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.020 Electrical services:
                    high-voltage transformers and switchboards
                    incoming mains, low-voltage transformers and switchboards
                    mains and submains
                    standby system
                    lighting and power
                    uninterruptible power supply
                    electric underfloor heating
                    local electrical heating units
                    earthing/lightning protection and bonding
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.030 Fitting out lighting fittings
                  05.040 Extra low voltage electrical services:
                    information and communications technology system
                    staff paging/location
                    public address system
                    building automation
                    security and alarm
                    close circuit television
                    communal aerial broadcast distribution and the like
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.050 Water supply and drainage above ground or inside basement:
                    cold water supply
                    hot water supply
                    flushing water supply
                    grey water supply
                    cleansing water supply
                    irrigation water supply
                    rainwater disposal
                    soil and waste disposal
                    planter drainage disposal
                    kitchen drainage disposal
                    related electrical and control systems
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.060 Supply of sanitary fittings and fixtures (installation included in ‘Water supply and above ground drainage’ unless not separable from costs of ‘Fittings and sundries’)
                  05.070 Disposal systems:
                    refuse
                    laboratory waste
                    industrial waste
                    incinerator
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.080 Fire services:
                    fire hydrant and hose reel system
                    wet risers
                    sprinkler system
                    deluge system
                    gaseous extinguishing system
                    foam extinguishing system
                    audio/visual advisory system
                    automatic fire alarm and detection system
                    portable hand-operated appliances and sundries
                    related electrical and control systems
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.090 Gas services:
                    coal gas
                    natural gas
                    liquid petroleum gas
                    medical gas/laboratory gas
                    industrial gas/compressed air/instrument air
                    vacuum
                    steam
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.100 Movement systems:
                    lifts | elevators
                    platform lifts
                    escalators
                    travellators | moving walkways
                    conveyors
                    submissions, testing and commissioning
                  05.110 Gondolas
                  05.120 Turntables
                  05.130 Generators
                  05.140 Energy-saving features
                  05.150 Water and wastewater treatment equipment
                  05.160 Fountains, pools and filtration plant
                  05.170 Powered building signage
                  05.175 Audio/visual entertainment system
                  05.180 Kitchen equipment
                  05.190 Cold room equipment
                  05.200 Laboratory equipment
                  05.210 Medical equipment
                  05.220 Hotel equipment
                  05.230 Car park or entrances access control
                  05.240 Domestic appliances
                  05.250 Other specialist services
                  05.260 Builder’s profit and attendance on services
                  06. Surface and underground drainage
                  06.010 Surface water drainage
                  06.020 Storm water drainage
                  06.030 Foul and wastewater drainage
                  06.040 Drainage disconnections and connections
                  06.050 CCTV inspection of existing or new drains
                  06.060 Buried Process Pipe
                  07. External and ancillary works
                  07.010 Permanent retaining structures
                  07.020 Site enclosures and divisions
                  07.030 Ancillary structures
                  07.040 Roads and paving
                  07.050 Landscaping (hard and soft)
                  07.060 Fittings and equipment
                  07.070 External services:
                    water supply
                    gas supply
                    power supply
                    communications supply
                    external lighting
                    utility disconnections and connections
                  08. Preliminaries | Constructors’ site overheads | general requirements
                  08.010 Construction management including site management staff and support labour
                  08.020 Temporary access roads and storage areas, traffic management and diversion (at the Constructors’ discretion)
                  08.030 Temporary site fencing and securities
                  08.040 Commonly shared construction plant
                  08.050 Commonly shared scaffolding
                  08.060 Other temporary facilities and services
                  08.070 Technology and communications: telephone, broadband, hardware, software
                  08.080 Constructor’s submissions, reports and as-built documentation
                  08.090 Quality monitoring, recording and inspections
                  08.100 Safety, health and environmental management
                  08.110 Insurances, bonds, guarantees and warranties
                  08.120 Constructor’s statutory fees and charges
                  08.130 Testing and commissioning
                  08.140 Extras for extreme climatic or working conditions (if priced separately according to local pricing practice)
                  09. Risk Allowances
                  09.010 Design development allowance
                  09.020 Construction contingencies
                  09.030 Price Level Adjustments:
                    until tendering
                    during construction
                  09.040 Exchange rate fluctuation adjustments
                  10. Taxes and Levies
                  10.010 Paid by the Constructor
                  10.020 Paid by the Client in relation to the construction contract payments
                  11. Work and utilities off-site (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)
                  11.010 Connections to, diversion of and capacity enhancement of public utility mains or sources off-site up to mains connections on-site:
                    electricity
                    transformers
                    water
                    sewer
                    gas
                    telecommunications
                  11.020 Public access roads and footpaths
                  12. Production and loose furniture, fittings and equipment (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)
                  12.010 Loose production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment not normally provided before completion of construction
                  12.020 Fixed production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment installed before completion of construction
                    production (including process and operating) equipment (including furniture and fittings)
                    related instrument and control systems
                    related safety and environmental control systems
                    related storage and transfer systems
                    services and equipment as described in Group 05 but dedicated to serve production equipment
                    surface and underground drainage as described in Group 06 but dedicated to serve production equipment
                    testing and commissioning
                    licences and certifications to start production
                    risks allowances
                    taxes and levies
                  13. Construction-related consultants and supervision (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)
                  13.010 Consultants’ fees and reimbursable:
                    architects (architectural, landscape, interior design, technical, etc.)
                    engineers (geotechnical, civil, structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing, technical, etc.)
                    project managers
                    surveyors (quantity surveying, land surveying, building surveying, cost engineering, etc.)
                    specialist consultants (environmental, traffic, acoustic, facade, BIM, etc.)
                    value management studies
                  13.020 Charges and levies payable to statutory bodies or their appointed agencies (in connection with planning, design, tender and contract approvals, supervision and acceptance inspections)
                  13.030 Site supervision charges (including their accommodation and travels)
                  13.040 Payments to testing authorities or laboratories

                Construction | Renewal | Maintenance Groups and Sub-Groups - Civil Engineering Works

                1. Carbon emissions are reported by exception at the Sub-Group level.
                2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

                Code

                Description
                    Group (Level 3)
                    Sub-Group (Level 4)
                2.   Construction (CC | CE)
                3.   Renewal (RC | RE)
                5.   Maintenance (MC | ME)
                    (CC | CE, RC | RE, and MC | ME share the same Groups below, so far as applicable. Those separated by ‘|’ in [ ] are alternative terms for respective Groups)
                  01. Demolition, site preparation and formation
                  01.010 Site survey and ground investigation
                  01.020 Environmental treatment
                  01.030 Sampling of hazardous or useful materials or conditions
                  01.040 Temporary fencing
                  01.050 Demolition of existing structures and support to adjacent structures
                  01.060 Site surface clearance (clearing, grubbing, topsoil stripping, tree felling, minor earthwork, removal)
                  01.070 Tree transplant
                  01.080 General site formation and slope treatment (including embankments / cuttings required by more than one Sub-Project)
                  01.090 Temporary surface drainage and dewatering
                  01.100 Temporary access roads and storage areas (provided under an advance contract)
                  01.110 Temporary protection, diversion and relocation of public utilities
                  01.120 Erosion control
                  01.600 Water surface development (including common facilities and services, and dredge spoil recovery area)
                  01.610 Dredge spoil recovery area
                  01.620 Hydrographic / bathymetry surveys
                  01.630 Water quality monitoring
                  01.640 Excavation (of soft silt, peat, sands, gravels, clay, rock, etc., including mobilisation and demobilisation of excavators, blasting, transportation, disposal, reclamation, compaction and monitoring)
                  01.650 Dredging (of soft silt, peat, sands, gravels, clay, rock, etc., including mobilisation and demobilisation of dredgers and barges, blasting, transportation, disposal, reclamation, compaction and monitoring)
                  01.660 Special disposal and treatment of contaminated sediment
                  01.670 Reclamation or filling (with imported rock, concrete, or other hard materials)
                  01.680 Reclamation or filling (with dredged materials)
                  01.690 Surcharging or consolidation of lands and monitoring of settlement
                  01.700 Habitat protection systems
                  02. Substructure
                  02.010 Embankments / cuttings (specifically required for the Project or Sub-Project)
                  02.020 Excavation, disposal and lateral supports (specifically to receive any substructure construction but excluding general site formation and slope treatment)
                  02.025 Geotextile or other geomembranes
                  02.030 Trenching / common trenches
                  02.040 Drilling / boring
                  02.050 Piling / anchoring
                  02.060 Structural backfill / ground remediation
                  02.070 Earth-retaining structures
                  02.080 Abutments / wing walls
                  02.090 Pile caps / footings / bases (nearest to the ground level or water level if constructed in water)
                  02.100 Sub-base to pavements and rail track structures
                  02.110 Bases to supports for tanks, pipes, well heads and the like
                  02.120 Beds and surrounds to underground pipes
                  02.600 Pile retaining walls (combi walls / H-pile walls / secant piled walls
                    sheet piled walls
                    gravity quay walls
                    relieving platforms
                    pile supported structures
                    special types
                  02.610 Diaphragm walls
                  02.620 Quays / docks / wharfs / moorings / piers /dry dock structure foundations
                  02.630 Marine anchor systems
                  02.640 Mooring dolphins
                  02.650 Breakwaters
                    cores
                    primary armour (interlocking units)
                    secondary armour
                  02.660 Rock revetments / gabions
                  02.670 Cofferdams
                  02.680 Bank protection
                  03. Structure
                  03.010 Piers and towers
                  03.020 Suspension system
                  03.030 Decks
                  03.040 Bearings
                  03.050 Tunnel lining
                  03.060 Roads / track bases
                  03.070 Pavements
                  03.080 Service roads and approaches
                  03.090 Parapets / edge treatment
                  03.100 Main structures (in case of land formation and reclamation, referring to those of project types not separately reported as Sub-Projects)
                  03.105 Service stations and houses for district utility services
                  03.110 Tanks, rigs, storage containers and the like
                  03.120 Supports for tanks, pipes and the like
                  03.130 Civil pipework
                  03.140 Valves and fittings
                  03.600 Seawalls
                  03.610 Lake and river lining
                  03.620 Prefabricated marine structures – off-site fabrication
                  03.630 Prefabricated marine structures – transport to site location
                  03.640 Prefabricated marine structures – installation on site location
                  03.650 Slipways / gangways / linkways
                  03.660 Dock and lock gates
                  03.670 Pontoons
                  03.680 Coastal protection systems
                  03.690 Deck / surface structures (ground bearing or suspended concrete slabs)
                  03.700 Locks and guidance structures
                  03.710 Revetments
                  03.720 Flood defences
                  03.730 Navigational aids
                  03.740 Dry docks structures
                  03.750 Weirs
                  03.760 Aqueducts
                  04. Non-structural works
                  04.010 Non-structural removal and alterations
                  04.020 Non-structural construction
                  04.030 Running surface
                  04.040 Signage, markings and the like
                  04.050 Gantries and the like
                  04.060 Safety facilities
                  04.070 Barriers / rails and means of access
                  04.080 Special equipment and fittings
                  04.090 Interior landscaping
                  04.100 Builders’ work in connection with services
                  05. Services and equipment
                  05.005 District heating, ventilating and cooling systems
                  05.010 Mechanical systems
                  05.020 Lighting systems
                  05.030 Illuminations
                  05.040 Low-voltage power supply
                  05.050 Cables/cable trays
                  05.060 Other electrical services
                  05.070 Control systems and instrumentation
                    signalling systems
                    telecommunications systems
                  05.080 Pipe racks / supports (localised)
                  05.090 Water supply and drainage above ground or inside underground construction (localised)
                  05.100 Refuse and waste disposal systems
                  05.110 Fire services
                  05.115 Gas services
                  05.120 Movement systems: lifts / elevators / conveyors
                  05.600 Boat lifts
                  05.610 Cranes / rigs/ rails
                  05.620 Under water / sea service pipe installation
                  05.630 Under water / sea electrical / data cabling
                  06. Surface and underground drainage
                  06.010 Surface water drainage
                  06.020 Storm water drainage
                  06.030 Foul and waste water drainage
                  06.040 Pumping systems
                  06.050 Drainage connections
                  07. External and ancillary works
                  07.010 Site enclosures and divisions
                  07.020 Ancillary structures
                  07.030 Roads and paving (not amounting to a Sub-Project)
                  07.040 Landscaping (hard and soft)
                  07.050 Fittings and equipment
                  08. Preliminaries | Constructors’ site overheads | general requirements
                  08.010 Construction management including site management staff and support labour
                  08.020 Temporary access roads and storage areas, traffic management and diversion (at the Constructors’ discretion)
                  08.025 Temporary concrete batching yard, precast concrete casting yard
                  08.030 Temporary site fencing and securities
                  08.040 Commonly shared construction plant
                  08.045 Marine plant and equipment (e.g. ships / barges / vessels, floating cranes, dredgers, floating drill rigs, cofferdams, caissons, etc.)
                  08.050 Commonly shared scaffolding
                  08.055 Workpeople living accommodation
                  08.060 Other temporary facilities and services
                  08.065 Mobilisation and demobilisation where significant and not elsewhere reported
                  08.070 Technology and communications: telephone, broadband, hardware, software
                  08.080 Constructor’s submissions, reports and as-built documentation
                  08.090 Quality monitoring, recording and inspections
                  08.100 Safety, health and environmental management
                  08.110 Insurances, bonds, guarantees and warranties
                  08.120 Constructor’s statutory fees and charges
                  08.130 Testing and commissioning
                  08.140 Extras for extreme climatic or working conditions (if priced separately according to local pricing practice)
                  09. Risk Allowances
                  09.010 Design development allowance
                  09.020 Construction contingencies
                  09.030 Price level adjustments
                    until tendering
                    during construction
                  09.040 Exchange rate fluctuation adjustments
                  010. Taxes and Levies
                  010.010 Paid by the Constructors
                  010.020 Paid by the Client in relation to the construction contract payments
                  11. Work and utilities off-site (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)