Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control 施工合同前造價計劃和控制

Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control 施工合同前造價計劃和控制 KCTang

Go to End

Note 註

  • 5/3/2023: IPMS revised. Various images updated.
  • 18/2/2023: Revised.
    修改。
  • 8/4/2022: Chinese version partially added. Minor adjustments made.
    添加了部分中文版。進行了細微調整。
  • 16/3/2022: Re-sequencing and minor corrections made.
    進行了重新排序和小幅修正。
  • 10/3/2022: Minor adjustments made.
    進行了細微調整。
  • 7/3/2022: ICMS split out on its own. Cost geometry and most significant cost parameters moved to "Estimating and Pricing".
    ICMS 分拆獨立。造價幾何和最重要的造價參數移至"估算和定價"。
  • 3/3/2022: Minor adjustments made.
    進行了細微調整。
  • 1/3/2022: Updated for ICMS 3 and IPMS.
    針對 ICMS 3 和 IPMS 進行了更新。
  • 23/2/2022: Minor adjustments made.
    進行了細微調整。
  • 18/3/2021: 9 sections added or revised. Punctuation style revised.
    添加或修改了 9 個部分。標點樣式修改。
  • 13/3/2020: Usual payment terms added.
    添加了通常的付款條件。
  • 26/2/2020: Minor adjustments made.
    進行了細微調整。
  • 20/12/2014: Moved from wiki.
    從 wiki 移來。

Pre-contract cost management 施工合同前的造價管理

  1. Principal cost management tasks during the pre-contract stage:
    施工合同前的主要造價管理任務:
    • Prepare cost estimates or cost plans
      編製估算概算或造價計劃
    • Prepare cash flow tables
      編製現金流量表
    • Attend design meetings
      參與設計會議
    • Monitor the design
      監控設計
    • Adjust the cost estimates and reconcile
      調整估算概算及解釋變化
    • Compare alternatives.
      比較備選方案。
  2. Estimate, plan, update and control.
    估計、計劃、更新和控制

Need for pre-construction cost estimates 為何需要施工前概算

  1. Know the costs for investment decisions:
    知道成本造價以作投資決定:
    • Calculate land bid price
      計算買地投標價
    • Calculate acceptable rental
      計算可接受的租金
    • Evaluate the feasibility of the investment.
      評估投資的可行性。
  2. Establish a project (development) budget.
    確定發展項目的投資預算。
  3. Obtain funding.
    獲取資助。
  4. Borrow money from the bank.
    從銀行借錢。
  5. Formulate a design brief which defines the scope and standard of the project.
    制定設計任務書以說明發展項目的範圍和標準。
  6. Monitor the design development to control the costs within budget.
    ​​​​​​​監控設計的深化以控制不超出投資預算。
  7. Estimate fees or review fee percentage.
    估算顧問費或覆核顧問費率。

Best time to plan and control the costs 計劃和控制造價的最佳時機

  1. As early as possible during the development process.
    在項目發展階段中越早越好。
  2. Better chances to make design changes to find a better solution.
    較有機會修改設計取得更好的方案。
  3. To reduce abortive design costs and time.
    減少設計返工成本和時間。

Ways to calculate cost estimates 計算造價估算的方法

  1. Techniques:
    • Estimates should be done using expedient methods, approximations and shortcuts to reduce estimating time and costs in order to afford more estimates.
  2. Methods:
    • By unit cost per floor area / length / number estimates
    • By measuring the most significant cost parameters
    • By measuring elemental quantities
    • By measuring approximate quantities
    • By pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Estimating mottos 四字真言

  1. From big to small.

    由大到小。

  2. From rough to fine.

    從粗到細。

  3. Focus on the important.

    重點出擊。

  4. Make bold assumptions.

    大膽假設。

  5. Verify carefully.

    小心求証。

  6. Compare with the unlike.

    觸類旁通。

  7. Conduct self-checking.

    自我覆核。

  8. Reconcile with the previous.

    瞻前顧後。

  9. Empathize with the Client.

    ​​​​​​​設身處地​​​​​​。

(gerunds changed to verbs, 8/4/2022)

​​​​​​​Different names of pre-construction cost estimates 概算的不同名稱

  1. Rough Indication of Costs ("RIC").
    大約估算。
  2. Preliminary Indication of Costs.
    初步估算指標。
  3. Preliminary Cost Estimates.
    概算。
  4. Elemental Cost Estimates.
    功能分部概算。
  5. Cost Plans.
    成本計畫。
  6. Cost Models (An American term).
    成本模型 (美式用詞)。
  7. Pre-tender Estimates.
    標底。

Budgets, cost estimates and cost plans

  1. Budget:
    • A budget is the maximum sum a Developer is willing and able to spend on a project.
  2. Cost estimate:
    • A cost estimate is a forecast of the probable ultimate cost based on the current design.
    • It is required to be done throughout the pre-construction stages as well as the construction stage until the estimated costs become fixed prices.
    • A cost estimate for now, if satisfactory and approved, will become the cost plan for the future design.
  3. Cost plan:
    • A cost plan is a detailed cost framework for controlling future design.
    • It sets out the portions of the total budget allocated to different parts of the construction so as to serve as the cost limits to the relevant parts of the construction.
    • It may just be based on some interpolation from the cost data of other projects or may be based on some detailed cost estimate specifically prepared for the relevant design.
    • It usually refers to the cost plan before the award of the principal contract. After that, the cost plan will be replaced with regular final statements.
  4. Rough indication of costs ("RIC"):
    • It is a kind of cost estimates. It may be just based on unit cost / number or unit cost / floor area or unit cost / other functional unit to be used in the feasibility study or early design stage based on some ideas or sketch designs
    • HK ArchSD still calls it "Rough Indication of Costs" when the estimate is still in the early stage though the details may be more than just based on unit cost per floor areas.
  5. Approximate estimate:
    • Approximate estimates should be done using expedient methods, approximations and shortcuts to reduce estimating time and costs in order to afford more estimates.
    • This principle should be applied to pre-construction cost estimates or post contract cost estimates.
  6. Detailed cost estimate:
    • It is a more detailed cost estimate prepared when the design is more developed.
    • "Detailed" refers to the number of items measured, rather than to the accuracies of the quantities estimated.
    • Some consultants call it "Preliminary Cost Estimate", and some call it "Cost Plan".
    • It may become the Budgetary Estimate if approved.
  7. Pre-tender estimate (按工程量清單計算標底):
    • A pre-tender estimate is no longer an approximate estimate and is prepared by pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.
  8. A logical sequence is like this:
    • Rough Indication of Costs => Detailed Cost Estimate => Cost Plan / Budgetary Estimate => Pre-tender Estimate.

(revised, 18/2/2023)

Elemental cost classifications

  1. Trade by trade classifications:
    • Pricing documents for tendering are usually arranged in trade by trade or works section orders or work breakdown structures according to the local standard method of measurement or local practice.
  2. Elemental cost classifications:
    • Instead of following the same order, pre-construction cost estimating in many countries (not all) adopt an elemental cost classification, which divides the costs of a construction project into various parts ("elements") each serving a specific function or common purpose such that the costs of alternatives serving the same function or purpose can be compared, evaluated and selected irrespective of their trades, works sections, design, specification, materials or construction.
  3. Classifying the costs of a building (or other construction) into elements would facilitate:​
    • Comparison of the costs of different design options serving the same elemental function
    • Comparison with costs of other projects by elements
    • Rationalizing the budget allocation between different elements for better use
    • Quicker estimating based on elemental quantities which are easier to measure
    • Analysis of data for different projects on the same basis and classification.
  4. Different elemental cost classifications in Hong Kong:
  5. Many other places outside Hong Kong also have their own elemental cost classification systems, e.g.:
  6. ICMS:

(revised, 5/3/2023)

Construction floor area and gross floor area in Hong Kong

  1. Different areas:
    • For costing, leasing and sales of buildings and related land, people usually have to refer to unit cost or price per floor area of the buildings as the most important controlling parameter.
    • However, there are many types of floor areas being defined for different purposes in Hong Kong or other places outside Hong Kong. An understanding of their possible differences is important.
  2. CFA:
    • Quantity Surveyors measure the construction floor area (CFA) in order to estimate the total construction cost of a building.
  3. GFA:
    • Lands leased by the Government in Hong Kong are subject to limitation on the gross floor areas (lease GFA) of the buildings which may be built on the land. Some of the construction floor area is not accountable for the lease GFA. The Lands Department is responsible for the control. Read the Lands Department's Practice Note on Accountable and Non-Accountable GFA under Lease at https://www.landsd.gov.hk/en/images/doc/1998_1A_text.pdf.
    • Building plans have to be submitted to the Buildings Department for approval and consent before construction. The gross floor areas (GFA) are also controlled by the Buildings Regulations. Read the Buildings Department's Practice Note on Calculation of Gross Floor Area and Non-accountable Gross Floor Area at https://www.bd.gov.hk/doc/en/resources/codes-and-references/practice-notes-and-circular-letters/pnap/APP/APP002.pdf.
    • The Lands Department's Practice Note says while the Lands Department is usually prepared to follow the Buildings Department's ruling in exemptions from GFA calculations, it reserves its right and absolute discretion to do otherwise in individual cases.
  4. Saleable area:

International Property Measurement Standards (IPMS)

  1. The International Property Measurement Standards at https://ipmsc.org/standards/ are intended to unify the rules of measurement of various kinds of floor areas for different types of buildings.
  2. A single harmonised standard covering All Buildings has been published on 15 January 2023 to supersede all previously published standards for individual asset classes.
  3. IPMS 1 (gross external floor area) and IPMS 2 (gross internal floor area) are referred to by ICMS.
  4. Read this and appreciate the diagrammatic illustration.
  5. CFA in Hong Kong is close to IPMS 1 with one exception: accessible rooftop terraces are included in IPMS 1 but not in Hong Kong CFA.

(revised, 18/2/2022, 5/3/2023)

Need for historical cost analyses

  1. Before talking about the cost estimates, it may be appropriate to talk about cost analyses first.
  2. Cost analyses are needed to:
    • Benchmark new projects
    • Provide cost data for new estimates
    • Provide cost parameters for new estimates​​​​​​​.

(revised, 18/2/2023)

Cost analyses

Example adopting ICMS

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

(image updated, 5/3/2023)

Classify total costs

  1. A cost analysis analyses the awarded or final prices of a project and re-classify the costs following the same classification used for the cost estimates or cost plans.
  2. When classified in elemental format, the cost of each element or sub-element is summed up into a single line item.
  3. The cost is called “elemental cost” in Hong Kong.

Identify elemental quantities

  1. A single representative quantity is measured for that line item.
  2. The single quantity is called "elemental quantity" in Hong Kong. “representative” means that the quantity can best represent the cost changes in case of quantity changes.

Get elemental unit rates

  1. The cost of that cost item is then divided by the elemental quantity to give a single all-inclusive rate.
  2. The single all-inclusive rate is called "elemental unit rate" in Hong Kong.
  3. That means:
    • elemental cost / elemental quantity = elemental unit rate,
    • or
    • elemental quantity x elemental unit cost = element cost,
    • depending on the order of presenting the columns in table form.
  4. The elemental unit rates are very useful when the cost of a new project is required to be estimated before any detailed design is available.

Apply the elemental unit rates to new projects

  1. Elemental quantities can be measured for the new project and priced at elemental unit rates of the reference projects.
  2. There are not too many items of elemental quantities to be measured. The cost estimating process can therefore be very fast.
  3. Of course, the elemental unit rates may not be directly applicable to the new project.
  4. It should at least be adjusted for the changes in the price levels from the times it was applicable to the reference project to the time of the new project, and then for other changed factors.

Get quantity ratios or factors

  1. A cost analysis should also contains quantity ratios or factors such as:
    • elevation area : floor area
    • concrete volume per floor area
    • formwork area per concrete volume or floor area
    • rebar weight per concrete volume or floor area
    • etc.
  2. These quantity ratios can serve as useful references when estimating the costs of new projects.
  3. Apart from using the data in a cost analysis to estimate the cost of a new project in the absence of detailed design, the data can also be used to benchmark the cost of a new project after a more detailed cost estimate is done to ensure that the new project would not go out of order.
  4. Hong Kong Government uses this technique to control the costs of new project at the design stage.
  5. The Architectural Services Department has published a very detailed Project Cost Analysis Form.

Changes in cost and price levels

  1. Due to changes in the market conditions, the unit rates for exactly the same description of work may change over time.
  2. The market conditions may include fluctuations in the costs of labour, materials and plant, market competition, and other factors.
  3. Unit rates applicable in the past would need to be adjusted to the current level.
  4. Tender price or cost indices are therefore prepared to provide the adjustment factors.
  5. Their differences should be appreciated.
  6. Tender price indices and cost indices can fluctuate at different rates because price = cost + profit, and the price may increase less than the cost increase in order to secure projects or may increase more in case the market is full.

​​​​​​​(revised, 18/2/2023)

Different methods of approximate cost estimating 計算概算的方法

Different methods

  1. Unit method (common).
  2. Superficial method or area method (common).
  3. Cubic method (seldom used for buildings).
  4. Storey enclosure method (seldom used now).
  5. Elemental cost estimates (common):
    • Elemental quantity method
    • Approximate quantity method.
  6. Condensed elemental method using the most significant cost parameters.

Pre-tender estimate:

  1. A pre-tender estimate is no longer an approximate cost estimate and is prepared by pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering.

Unit method (按功能單元個數計算)

  1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the number of functional units provided by the building x unit cost per functional unit.
  2. ICMS has suggested the following functional units for buildings: number of occupants | number of bedrooms | number of hospital beds | number of hotel rooms | number of car parking spaces | number of classrooms | number of students | number of passengers | number of boarding gates.
  3. The unit method is a crude method serving as an early indication of the probable order of cost of the average building of the relevant type.
  4. It is not useful for forecasting with a high degree of accuracy the costs of newly proposed buildings of the same type because their designs can be very different.
  5. However, it may be used by clients and in particular government departments to serve as a cost yardstick controlling the budget of newly proposed projects.
  6. It is still also useful to serve a check that a unit cost per floor area may sound reasonable but, when expressed in unit cost per functional unit, the unit cost can be out of order because of excessive floor area per functional unit.

Superficial method or area method (按樓面積計算)

  1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the floor area of the building x unit cost per floor area.
  2. This is the most commonly used method, possibly because the sales and rental prices are also expressed in unit cost per floor area.
  3. Note however that there are many definitions of "floor area". The same definition should be consistently applied.

Cubic method (seldom used for buildings) (按樓體積計算(現少用))

  1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the volume of the building x unit cost per volume.
  2. In theory, the volume can take care of the different storey heights of the building.
  3. This is not commonly used probably because the floor areas are more readily available, and calculating the volumes would mean a further step to be done.
  4. The cubic method may be useful for site formation works or civil engineering works involving massive volume of work.

​​​​​​​Storey enclosure method (seldom used now) (按樓板及外殼面積加權計算(現少用)

  1. In essence, the estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of the weighted areas of bottom slabs (basement or ground), suspended floor slabs, roof slabs, and walls below and above ground x unit cost per total weighted area.
  2. Each type of slabs or walls are given different fixed weightings to reflect their relative ratios of costs.
  3. The calculation is much more complicated than the superficial method or the cubic method.
  4. With so many varieties of construction components and materials, whether the fixed weightings can truly reflect the relative ratios of costs is doubtful.
  5. This method is seldom used these days.
  6. Search the internet for details and examples.

(revised, 18/2/2023)

Elemental quantity method (按功能分部工程量計算)

  1. The building cost is classified into different elements (or Groups or Sub-Groups as used in ICMS as shown under the "Sections" column in the example below which follows ICMS classifications).
  2. Each element is represented by an appropriate elemental quantity which best represents the elemental cost (i.e., changing proportionally).
  3. It can be seen from the example below that the elemental quantities generally adopt the values of the most significant cost parameters discussed here and below.
  4. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (elemental quantity x elemental unit rate).
  5. It takes into account the different forms, provisions and standard of the proposed new building better than the average unit cost per floor area.
  6. It is therefore a more accurate method than the superficial method.
  7. However, while the elemental quantities are simple to measure, the elemental unit rates would rely on reliable cost data from other projects or may need careful build-ups.
  8. This method should only be used at the early stage of design.
  9. At the time of the elemental quantity cost estimates, there would not be much details to measure approximate quantities and one has to rely on past cost analyses or some estimated quantity factors and ratios to estimate the elemental unit rates.
  10. The elemental unit rates, quantity factors and ratios should be critically reviewed to see whether they should remain unchanged or adjusted when the design of the building is changed even though the elemental quantities can remain unchanged.
  11. The price levels of past projects must be adjusted to the present day for use.

(image updated, 5/3/2023)

Approximate quantity method (按分項大約工程量計算)

  1. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (approximate quantity of major item of work x unit rate per quantity of major item of work inclusive of costs of minor items):
  2. It does not usually show the elemental quantities and elemental unit rates just to save time.
  3. As the design is more developed, it is possible to measure the work constituting the building more accurately and apply more appropriate unit rates relevant to the materials and standard chosen.
  4. The quantities are approximate to reduce the time to measure so that a quicker cost estimate can be produced to reflect the updated cost of the design and enable any subsequent measures to control any unexpected costly design.

(image updated, 5/3/2023)

Condensed elemental method using the most significant cost parameters

  1. Users of the elemental quantity method may find that many elemental quantities are the same for different elements and can in fact be reduced into a few most significant cost parameters:​​​​​​​​​​​​
    • Floor area (above ground + below ground)
    • Ground area (= roof area)
    • Transfer structure area
    • External elevation area
    • Basement screen wall area or more effectively basement volume of excavation
    • Site area
    • External area (site area - ground area)
    • Number of equipment
    • Refrigeration tonnage
    • Other elemental quantities.
  2. The estimated cost of a building is calculated based on the total of (quantity of the above cost parameter x composite unit rate per quantity of cost parameter).
  3. This can provide a quick and equally reliable cost estimate though not as detailed as the elemental quantity cost estimate.

​​​​​​​​​​​​​Contents of cost estimates ​​​​​​​概算的內容

  1. Cover page:
    • Estimate Number
    • Project Name
    • Project Location
    • Estimate Date
    • List of Contents (if simple enough to list here)
    • Consultants’ Names.
  2. Contents page (for longer list)
  3. Grand Summary (in table form):
    ​​​​​​​大匯總:

    • Total Cost of Each Section of the Project
      建設項目每區域的總造價
    • Floor Area of Each Section
      每區域的樓面面積
    • Unit Cost per Floor Area.
      ​每區域的樓面面積的單價。
  4. Descriptions:
    編製說明:

    • Project Name
      項目名稱
    • Project Location
      項目地點
    • Scope of the Estimate
      估算範圍
    • Areas:
      面積:
      • Construction Floor Area / Covered Floor Area
        建築面積/有蓋樓面面積
      • Ground Area
        地面面積
      • Site Area
        地塊面積
      • Lease Gross Floor Area
        地契樓面面積
      • (Non-)Accountable GFA
        可豁面/不豁面地契樓面面積
      • Bay Window Area
        窗臺面積
    • Basis of the Estimate:
      估算依據:
      • Drawings used
        依據的圖紙
    • Price Levels:
      價格水準:
      • Current Prices
        現行價格
      • Fluctuations from Date of Preparing the Estimate to Tendering
        由編製到招標的價格浮動
      • Fluctuations from Tendering to Completion of Construction
        由招標到竣工的價格浮動
    • Outline Specification of Design and Materials
      分部設計及用料大綱
    • Finishes Schedule
      裝飾表
    • Exclusions.
      不包項目。
  5. Elemental Summary of each Section (in table form):
    每區域的功能分部匯總:

    • Floor Area of the Section
      該區域的樓面面積
    • Item Reference
      項目編碼
    • Total Cost of Each Element of the Section
      該區域的每功能分部總造價
    • Unit Cost per Floor Area
      每功能分部的樓面面積單價
    • % Proportion of each Element.
      每功能分部所占百分比。
  6. Detailed Build-up (Arranged by Elements or Cost Groups):
    ​​​​​​​​具體項目(按功能分部排列):

    • ​Item Reference
      ​​​​​​​編碼
    • Descriptions
      子目說明
    • Quantities (rounded off to tens or thousands)
      數量(拾位元或百位元整數)
    • Rates (rounded off to two significant figures)
      單價(兩個有效數字)
    • Extension (rounded off to ten thousands)
      合價(萬位元整數)
    • Elemental Totals
      功能分部總價
    • Possible additional information:
      可能的附加資料:

      • Elemental Quantities
        功能分部數量
      • Unit Costs per Elemental Quantities.
        ​功能分部單價。

​​​​​​​Adjust published unit costs per floor area

  1. Some Consultant QS firms publish unit costs per floor area for public information.
  2. When using these unit costs, care should be exercised to understand the scope of inclusions and exclusions, and their applicability.
  3. The General Practice Division of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors has published a Building Cost Pro-Forma for Private Sector Developments in Hong Kong.pdf.
  4. This should serve as a useful checklist, but the items and figures suggested there should be verified for individual projects.

Presentation of cost estimates

  1. Rounding off:
    • The quantities, unit rates and costs should be suitably rounded off.
  2. Word wrapping:
    • Text in table cells should be word-wrapped to avoid hiding of text at the end.
  3. Comparison tables:
    • When the cost estimates need to give comparison tables to show different options and the differences between options to help reading and appreciation of the relative costs, instead of showing all the columns of each option together, the columns can be re-arranged in the following sequence to save some space and enable easier reading:

Item

Section

Elemental Cost
HK$

Difference from Original HK$

Cost per m2 CFA
HK$

Remarks

Original

Option 1

Option 2

Option 1

Option 2

Original

Option 1

Option 2

Option 1

Option 2

Item

Section

Elemental Qty

Elemental Unit and Description

Elemental Unit Rate

Remarks

Original

Option 1

Option 2

Original

Option 1

Option 2

Option 1

Option 2

  • When spanning over more than one page, the Item and Section columns and column header rows should be repeated.
  • The contents under the Remarks columns can be very flexible, for adjustment methods, calculations, rationale, etc., subject only to space limitation.
  • The remarks can be “Assumed no change”, “Original qty x 2”, “Original rate x 1.2”, etc.
  • If there is not enough space, and the remarks are repeating, just insert “(a)”, “(b)”, “(c)”, in the Remarks columns, and define them below the table to mean:
    • Legend:
    • (a) Assumed no change
    • (b) Original qty x 2
    • (c) Original rate x 1.2 for higher rate due to complexity.
  • Instead of showing the quantity and rate adjustments separately, the adjustment can be made directly against the cost, such as:
    • Legend:
    • (a) Option 1 CFA / Original CFA = 2
    • (b) Original cost x 2
    • (c) Original cost x 2 x 1.2 for higher rate due to complexity
    • (d) Original cost x (new elemental qty / original elemental qty) x (new elemental unit rate / original elemental unit rate).
  • Example (d) can in fact save the need to show the columns for elemental qty, unit and unit rates.
  • The adjustment calculations can also cover inflationary factors.

Comments on specific ICMS Sub-Groups

Foundation piling

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes all foundation piling underneath the building with or without basement.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • Foundation piling supports the whole building.
    • Its costs are more related to the total construction floor area (CFA) of the building including the basement CFA, which should be used as the elemental quantity.
    • Elemental unit rate:
      • Equals to unit cost per construction floor area based on some similar projects.
  3. Approximate quantities:
    • The costs can be estimated, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, based on:
      • Piling plant mobilisation and demobilisation – Item
      • Piles – Number with each length/depth stated or total length/depth
      • Pile testing – Item.
    • It should be noted that the pile depths in ground and the pile core lengths are two different things.
    • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.

Foundations up to top of lowest floor slabs

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes that shown in blue below (pile caps, footings, substructure columns and walls, and lowest floor slabs and beams) beyond the footprint of the basement, and excludes foundation piling.
    • Foundations (excluding piles) underneath the basement are usually integrated with the basement bottom and should therefore be included in the “Basement sides and bottom”.
    • Therefore, this Sub-Group's costs are not related to the basement footprint or the basement floor areas.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • Pile caps, footings and substructure columns and walls, which support the whole building, are more related to the total CFA and building height.
    • Lowest floor slabs and beams are more related to the ground area (GA) of the building.
    • On the conservative side, the total CFA should be used as the elemental quantity to obtain the elemental unit rate for future references.
    • However, when applying this elemental unit rate to a building of significantly different building height and different CFA to GA ratio (approximately equal to the number of floors), the elemental unit rate can be broken into two parts for application.
    • For example, from the cost analysis of a reference building:
    • The unit rates at (a) and (d) can then be applied to the proposed building, subject to further adjustments for other dissimilarities.
    • Similar method can be adopted to split the elemental unit rates into different parts to handle those parts which do not vary in proportion to the elemental quantity.
  3. Approximate quantities:
    • For approximate quantity cost estimates, the costs can be, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, estimated based on:
      • Excavation (rates to include disposal) – volume of excavation from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer with allowance for working spaces beyond the volume of the concrete work
      • Lateral supports in the form of planking and strutting for shallow excavation – allowed for in the rates for excavation
      • Lateral supports in the form of planking and strutting for deep excavation – as described for “Basement sides and bottom”
      • Raft footings, pile caps, column bases, wall footings, strap beams and tie beams – concrete volume, formwork area and reinforcement weight
      • Substructure walls and columns – ditto
      • Lowest floor slabs and beams – ditto
      • Lift pits – number.
    • ICMS gives a good checklist of the above.
    • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.
    • The concrete member sizes can be based on the preliminary design drawings.
    • Simplification into approximate average sizes x number can speed up the measurement.
    • It may even be quicker to estimate the average thickness per the building footprint from the preliminary design drawings or from some reference projects of similar height or adjusted for the differences in heights.
    • Following the same logic, the composite elemental unit rate build-up can be as follows:
      • Average concrete thickness / building footprint @ $/m3
      • Average formwork area / building footprint @ $/m2
      • Average concrete thickness / building footprint x steel ratio kg/m3 concrete @ $/kg
      • Average excavation depth / building footprint @ $/m3
      • Sum of the above = composite rate / building footprint
    • Of course, the concrete thickness and steel ratio should have taken into account the building height.

Basement sides and bottom

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes that shown in blue below (sides and bottom) of a basement and excavation for the basement, and excludes foundation piling.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • This is a difficult Sub-Group for choosing the appropriate elemental unit because:
      • part of its costs is related to the volume of the basement (excavation, disposal, and shoring and strutting)
      • part related to the basement footprint (basement bottom)
      • part related to the side area (basement side and vertical retaining support which can be twice the basement depth).
    • The volume of the basement should be the best choice for use as the elemental quantity.
    • The basement floor area may also be a reflection of the volume.
    • However, it would be better to estimate the costs from a number of approximate quantities rather than a single elemental quantity.
  3. Approximate quantities:
    • For approximate quantity cost estimates, the costs can be, after consulting the Structural Engineer for a preliminary design, estimated based on:
      • Excavation (rates to include disposal) – volume of excavation from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer with allowance for working spaces beyond the volume of the concrete work
      • Vertical lateral support – area of excavated surfaces retained (from commencing level of excavation to bottom of blinding layer) x 2 or more to account for the embedded depth below the blinding layer
      • Horizontal or raking shoring to lateral support - area of excavated surfaces retained (suitable for raking shoring) or volume of excavation (suitable for flying shoring, i.e. horizontal shoring spanning across the whole site with intermediate vertical posts to support), unless more detailed measurement is used
      • Bottom slabs and blinding (including all foundations underneath but excluding piles) – concrete volume, formwork area and reinforcement weight
      • Basement sides – area
      • Vertical waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and skin wall – area of tanking
      • Horizontal waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and topping slab – area of tanking
      • Insulation – area
      • Lift pits, sump pits, sleeves – number of lift pits and sump pits.
    • ICMS gives a good checklist of the above.
    • All ancillary work not measured should be allowed for in the rates.
    • The concrete member sizes can be based on the average thicknesses from the preliminary design drawings or from some reference projects of similar height or adjusted for the differences in heights.
    • Simpler cost build-up can take the following form:
      • Volume of excavation – composite rates to cover excavation, disposal, and horizontal or raking shoring per m3 of excavation
      • Area of basement bottom – composite rates to cover all horizontal elements, with different ratios per basement bottom area to account for different elements
      • Area of basement sides – composite rates to cover all vertical elements, with different ratios per basement side area to account for different elements
      • Lump sum – to cover other standalone elements.

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Basement suspended floors (up to top of ground floor slabs)

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes all structural walls and columns, beams, slabs and staircases inside the basement, but excludes basement sides and bottom.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • The elemental quantity should be the CFA of the basement.
    • Elemental unit rate build-up (per basement CFA):
      • Similar to that for the "Frames and slabs".

Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs)

  1. Scope
    • This Sub-Group includes all structural walls and columns, beams, slabs and staircases above the top of ground floor slabs.
  2. Elemental quantity
    • The elemental quantity should be the CFA above ground, not the total CFA including the basement CFA.
    • Elemental unit rate build-up (per CFA above ground):
Concrete m3 concrete / m2 floor area @ $/m3
Formwork m2 formwork / m2 floor area @ $/m2
Reinforcement

kg reinforcement / m3 concrete

x m3 concrete / m2 floor area

or

kg reinforcement / m2 floor area

@ $/kg
  • The quantity ratios are usually based on some similar projects or by sampling based on a typical bay.

Roof beams and slabs for Buildings under "Structure"

  1. Scope:
    • Roofs can occur at the top of buildings or at lower floors. Any suspended floor without cover above is considered as a roof.
    • “roof beams and slabs” for Buildings should also include such roofs at the top or at lower floors.
    • In principle, the roof area on plan at various levels should be equal to the projected building footprint area on plan.
      • ​​​​​​​
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • The elemental quantity should be the roof area if roof beams and slabs are separately estimated.
    • Otherwise, it should be part of the total CFA including the basement CFA.

External elevations

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes all external walls including applied finishes, cladding, curtain walls, windows, doors, shop fronts and shutters on the external elevations, but excludes external structural walls.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • The elemental quantity should be the external elevation area.
    • ICMS defines it as "total area of external wall finishes, facade cladding and curtain walls, windows, doors, shop fronts, roller shutters, fire shutters, etc. on the external elevations including all surfaces of

      external railings, parapets and features, but ignoring the presence of canopies".

    • Elemental unit rate build-up (per elevation area):
Aluminium windows a% elevation area @ $/m2
Finishes on structural walls, columns and beams b% elevation area @ $/m2
External non-structural walls and finishes c% elevation area @ $/m2
Roller shutters d% elevation area @ $/m2
  • a%+b%+c%+d% = 100% elevation area.
  • The percentages are approximate proportions of the total external elevation area of a sampled section of the elevation.

Roof finishes, skylights and landscaping (including waterproofing and insulation)

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group include those to such roofs at the top or at lower floors.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • Roof area
    • Element unit rate build-up:
      • Similar to other Sub-Groups.

Internal divisions

  1. Scope:
    • This Sub-Group includes ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​all kinds of divisions including internal windows, doors and shutters.
  2. Elemental quantity:
    • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA.
    • Element unit rate build-up (per CFA):
Internal non-structural concrete walls m2 walls / m2 floor area @ $/m2
Internal brick walls m2 walls / m2 floor area @ $/m2
Doors No. of doors / m2 floor area @ $/No.
etc.    
  • The quantity factors are based on a similar project or approximate wall areas per construction floor area of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.
  • The wall areas have door openings deducted.
  • The elemental quantity can also be the total wall areas without deducting door openings
  • The elemental unit rate build-up will then be (per total wall area):

Internal non-structural concrete walls a% of wall area @ $/m2
Internal brick walls b% of wall area @ $/m2
Extra for doors No. of doors / m2 wall area @ $/No.#
etc.    
  • a% + b% = 100%.
  • # = after deducting cost of wall.
  • The percentages are approximate proportions of the total wall area of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.

Fittings and sundries

  1. Scope
    • This Sub-Group basically includes all the metal work and joinery, and interior landscaping.
  2. Elemental quantity
    • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA, or the relevant functional quantity.
    • Elemental unit rate:
      • Generally based on similar projects.

Finishes under cover

  1. Scope
    • This Sub-Group includes all floor and ceiling finishes and false ceilings whether internal or external, and internal wall finishes and cladding.
  2. Elemental quantity
    • The elemental quantity can be the total CFA including the basement CFA.
    • Elemental unit rate build-up of floor finishes (internal and external) (per CFA):
Floor finish A a% of floor area / CFA @ $/m2
Floor finish B b% of floor area / CFA @ $/m2
Floor finish C c% of floor area / CFA @ $/m2
Add 10% for skirting    
  • a%+b%+c% = an estimated percentage of floor area / CFA after deducting voids, and wall and column base areas, i.e. less than 100% of CFA.
  • Elemental unit rate build-up of internal wall finishes and cladding (per CFA):

Wall finish A a% of wall area / CFA @ $/m2
Wall finish B b% of wall area / CFA @ $/m2
Wall finish C c% of wall area / CFA @ $/m2
  • The quantity factors are based on a similar project or approximate internal wall finishes areas per CFA of a sampled floor, which layout may be just an educated guess.
  • Note the approximate formula: internal wall finishes = internal wall area x 2 + external wall area.
  • False ceiling voids and unfinished lift shafts would affect this formula.
  • Elemental unit rate build-up of ceiling finishes and false ceilings (internal and external) (per CFA):

Ceiling finish A a% of ceiling area / CFA @ $/m2
Ceiling finish B b% of ceiling area / CFA @ $/m2
Ceiling finish C c% of ceiling area / CFA @ $/m2
  • a%+b%+c% = an estimated percentage of the ceiling area / CFA after deducting voids, and wall and column areas, but adding beam sides, i.e. more than 100% of CFA.

Services and equipment

  1. The costs of services and equipment are generally estimated based on $/CFA for each sub-system.
  2. If part of the building is not served by a sub-system, the CFA used may be only the area served.
  3. In the case of toilets and kitchens, the estimate may be based on the number of toilets and kitchens.
  4. For a more detailed cost analysis or cost estimate, the costs can be broken down into the following portions:
    • Costs related to main equipment (chillers, cooling towers, air handling units, transformers, boilers, etc.)
    • Costs related to terminal service outlets (air grilles, diffusers, lighting points, power points, sprinklers, speakers, cameras, sanitary fittings, etc.)
    • Costs related vertical up-feed and down-feed
    • Costs related to horizontal distribution
    • Costs related to isolated locations (e.g. toilets, kitchens, plant rooms, etc.).

Movement systems

  1. While using the CFA as the elemental quantity for movement systems cannot be treated as wrong particularly when the CFA is big and there are many lifts and escalators, the cost should better be estimated based on cost per number of lift or escalator.

Elemental quantities based on % of other costs

  1. It would be more appropriate to use % of other costs (base costs) as the elemental quantities to allow for preliminaries and risk allowances as the base costs may change when the CFAs remain the same.

Steel ratios

  1. The steel ratios of structural walls and columns should be bigger than those for beams and slabs.

Unit cost / CFA of taller buildings

  1. The $/CFA of foundations, substructure and structure should be higher for taller buildings because of increased loading on the lower floors and increased wind load.
  2. The $/CFA of services and equipment should be higher for taller buildings because of longer running lengths of vertical pipes and cables, and increased lift speeds and capacities.
  3. Refuge floor would need to be added.
  4. Taller buildings take longer times to complete, causing higher unit rates and higher preliminaries costs. While it is usual to use the same % for preliminaries for different projects, when carrying out comparative cost studies for buildings with very different construction periods, the % should reflect the differences. Instead of adjusting all the unit rates, it may as well be simpler to adjust only the preliminaries to also cover the higher unit rates.

Composite rates for approximate quantities ​​​組合單價的測算

Composite items

  1. The approximate quantity method measures major work items as composite items so as to reduce the need and time to break down the work items into components for detailed measurement.
  2. Examples are:
    • lump sum allowances for mobilisation and demobilisation of major construction plant
    • m or No. piles of specific cross-sectional size
    • m3 excavation including disposal (backfill or remove from site)
    • m2 or m concrete members including formwork and reinforcement
    • m2 brick or block work including lintols
    • m2 cladding or curtain walls or window walls or windows including glazing
    • m or No. extra over m2 or m for special features
    • No. doors including frames, architraves, fixings, glazing, painting, fire rating, etc.
    • No. of major metal or joinery fittings
    • m2 roof finishes including surface layer, protective screed, waterproofing layer, levelling screed, insulation, etc.
    • m2 rendering including surface treatment
    • m2 plastering including painting
    • m2 tiling including screeding
    • No. of vertical stacks of water supply or disposal pipes including all pipe fittings and ancillaries
    • No. of kitchens or bath rooms or other serviced rooms including all sanitary fittings and branches
    • No. of sanitary fittings including all accessories
    • No. of terminal M&E fittings including conduits or wiring or cables
    • No. of main M&E equipment
    • m conduits or wiring or cables
    • m2 ducts
    • lump sum allowances for sundries
    • lump sum for or No. of costly tests
  3. Different sizes or types may be separated or grouped together depending on their cost significance.
  4. Average sizes may be stated or varying sizes deemed.

Composite rates

  1. Building up of composite rates would be required for such composite items.
  2. Buffers should be allowed in the approximate quantities and composite rates to cover the costs of unmeasured minor items.

Using BIM

  • When preliminary BIM models are used to generate quantities for preparing cost estimates, the quantities would not reflect the work items not modelled. Extra allowances in the approximate quantities or the composite rates should be made to cover the costs of unmodelled but necessary items.

Build-up of composite rates using properly set out dimension tables

  1. The following gives examples of composite items and build-ups of composite rates.​​​​​​​
  2. Example 1:
    • ​​​​​Note that in Hong Kong, beam concrete and formwork are measured those parts below slab soffit. Beam reinforcement includes those at the intersection of slab and beam.
  3. Example 2:
    • ​​​​​​​​​
    • Note that a typical bay of 6 x 6 m is measured to average out the beam quantities.
    • Note also that the four beams around each typical bay are shared with adjacent slabs, and their quantities are therefore halved.
  4. Example 3:
    • ​​​​​​​
  5. Example 4:

(first image added, 18/2/2023)

Handling empty cells instead of entering “1”

  1. Note that 36.00 at cell I46 uses the formula: "=PRODUCT(C48:H48)" which can treat empty cells within the range of C48:H48 as 1 without the need for entering 1.
  2. However, if the individual cell values within the range of C48:H48 contain more than 2 decimal places, the PRODUCT() function using the hidden values will not give the same result as the displayed value. To ensure proper match, a formula based on the displayed values should be used. Such accuracy would be required for Bills of Quantities and Final Account and should not be needed for Cost Estimates.

(added, 5/3/2023)

Using dash lines to bound ranges

  • Note that 65,917 at cell L46 uses the formula "=SUM(L47:L54)" which covers the range from the upper dash line to the lower dash line. Those dash lines embrace the rows of constituent items between them and ensure that the formula will not be corrupted due to addition or deletion of rows.

(added, 5/3/2023)

Round unit rates to 2 significant digits

  1. Note that 1,900 = 65,917/36.00 = 1,831.03 has been rounded up to two significant digits as 1,900.
  2. The formula used is "=IF(INT(L46/I46)>0,ROUNDUP(L46/I46,2-LEN(INT(L46/I46))),ROUNDUP(L46/I46,2))".
  3. L46/I46 is the quotient. Let's call it "Q".
  4. The formula will become "=IF(INT(Q)>0,ROUNDUP(Q,2-LEN(INT(Q))),ROUNDUP(Q,2))".
  5. It can be read as: if integer of Q > 0, then round it to 2 significant digits, else round up Q to 2 decimal places).
  6. INT(Q) = 1831.03, it is > 0.
  7. 2 - LEN(INT(Q)) = 2 - 4 = -2.
  8. ROUNDUP(1831.03, -2) = 1900.
  9. If Q = 0.1234, then ROUNDUP(Q, 2) = 0.13.
  10. The unit rates used in Cost Estimates are approximate rates.
  11. It would not make sense to show them in many digits and with decimal places to make them look like very accurate.
  12. 2 significant digits should be sufficient.
  13. Estimates should include buffers.
  14. Rounding up is appropriate.

(added, 5//3/2023)

Build-up of composite rates using compact format for showing in the Cost Estimate

  1. The following shows another method to present the composite rate calculations in the Cost Estimate.
  2. Example 5:
    • Note that the reinforcement refers to the concrete quantities already calculated at cells E15 and E23 above.
  3. Example 6:
    • Note that the function FORMULATEXT() is used to display the formula of the quantity of 0.48 above for checking. The cell entry must be preceded with "=" for it to be recognised as a formula.
    • Using this function will eliminate the need to type the formula separately as an explanation in addition to entering the formula in the calculation cell and risking mismatch errors.
    • The formula column can be hidden or deleted when issuing the Cost Estimate.
    • Note also that the estimated costs have been rounded to the nearest 10,000, using the formula "=ROUND(Rate*Qty, -4)".
    • This would give the image that the figure is an approximate estimate rather than an accurate figure.
  4. Example 7:
  5. Example 8:
  6. Example 9:
    • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
  7. Example 10:

Prepare cash flow tables 編製現金流量表

Use S-curve 用S線圖

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​

  1. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Divide the horizontal axis into parts equal to the number of months of construction.
    ​​​​​​​將水平軸按施工的月份數目分段
  2. For each month, interpolate from the curve the cumulative payment percentage on the vertical axis.
    利用曲線找出每個月在垂直軸相對的累計進度百份率
  3. Find the monthly payment percentages from the cumulative percentages.
    用累計進度百份率計出每月進度百份率
  4. Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost to obtain the monthly payment values.
    每月進度百份率乘總造價得出每月進度款。

Use Bar Chart Programmes 用條形進度計畫表

  1. Follow the bar chart programme, assign the monthly payment percentages for each activity bar.
    跟從條形進度計企劃表,對每條活動配以每月進度百份率
  2. Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost of each activity bar to obtain the monthly payment values.
    將每月進度百份率乘該條活動的造價得出每月進度款
  3. Ensure that the total of each activity bar is correct.
    確保每條活動的合計無誤。

For both methods

  1. Separate stage payments.
    要把分期付款及大型採購分列
  2. Separate Retention.
    要把保修金分列
  3. Watch out time lag between work carried out, payment certification and honouring of payment.
    注意施工、批款及付款的時間差。
  4. Payment terms:

    • Usual payment terms for construction contracts in Hong Kong:
      • no advance payment;
      • monthly payments for materials delivered to site and work done subject to 10% retention on the gross total up to a maximum equal to 5% of the original Contract Sum;
      • half of the retention to be released upon Practical Completion / Substantial Completion (*); and
      • the balance to be released upon the issue of the Defects Rectification Certificate / Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects / Maintenance Certificate (*) after rectification of defects found during the Defects Liability Period / Maintenance Period (*) usually of 12 months.
      • (*) = Different terms used by different standard forms of contract.
    • Possible payment terms for lift and escalator contracts / sub-contracts:
      • 10% upon award;
      • 20% when ready for shipment;
      • 30% on delivery to site;
      • 25% on issue of Use Permit by the EMSD;
      • 10% on Practical Completion / Substantial Completion; and
      • balance upon the issue of the Defects Rectification Certificate (as above).
    • Suppliers:
      • Usually require deposits or advance payments which can be moderately up to 30% or sometimes up to 50%.
    • Lower tiers sub-contractors:
      • Require shorter payment periods and no retention.

Reconciliation 概算變化的解釋

  1. Presented vertically:
    垂直列出:
  2. Presented side by side:
    並排表示:
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
  3. A legend of “(a)”, “(b)”, “(c)”, etc. can be used for stating common reasons, similar to the legends suggested for “comparison tables” under “Presentation of Cost Estimates” above.

Pre-tender Estimates ​​​​​​​標底

  1. Method:
    • By pricing the Bills of Quantities before formal issue of tender documents or before return of tenders.
      在發出招標檔前或在回標前利用工程量清單套取單價計價。
  2. Purposes:
    • For checking whether the cost so priced is within the previous estimate and the Budget
      以檢查得出的總價是否仍在前概算或投資預算之內
    • For making design changes and issuing tender addendum to keep the costs within the Budget
      作出設計修改並發出招標檔變更通知以便維持造價在投資預算之內
    • For checking against tenders returned for reasonableness
      用作評核回標價的合理性。

End of Page

International Cost Management Standard

International Cost Management Standard KCTang

Go to End

Note

  • 15/3/2022: Expanded.
  • 7/3/2022: Split from Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control.

Intro

  1. International Cost Management Standard (ICMS) (https://icms-coalition.org/the-standard/), formally called "International Construction Measurement Standards", is intended to provide global consistency in presenting construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions.

Aims

  1. Provide global consistency in classifying, defining, measuring, recording, analysing and presenting entire construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions at a project, regional, state, national or international level.
  2. Allow costs and carbon emissions to be managed and potentially reduced.
  3. Allow:
    • construction life cycle costs and carbon emissions to be consistently and transparently benchmarked (comparative benchmarking)
    • the causes of differences in life cycle costs and carbon emissions between projects to be identified (option appraisal)
    • properly informed decisions on the design and location of construction projects to be made at the best value for money (investment decision-making) and
    • data to be used with confidence for construction project financing and investment, decision-making, and related purposes (certainty).

Characteristics

  1. Global: co-existing with the locals.
  2. High level.
  3. For the first time, building works, civil engineering works and carbon emissions are now also covered by the same classification at the high level.
  4. Same for costs and carbon emissions.

Timeline

  1. 17 June 2015: Formation of ICMS Coalition – a non-governmental, not-for-profit professional coalition.
  2. November 2015: Standards Setting Committee starting to work.
  3. July 2017: Release of the 1st Edition covering capital construction costs of building and civil engineering works,
  4. August 2019: Release of the 2nd Edition extended to cover other life cycle costs and more civil engineering project types at the PAQS Congress in Malaysia.
  5. November 2021: Release of the 3rd Edition extended to cover carbon emissions and more civil engineering project types. Change of names to International Cost Management Standard and Standard Setting Committee.

Evolution of cost classification

 

  1. "elements" in the traditional QS sense was called "Cost Groups" and "Cost Sub-Groups" in ICMS 1 and 2.
  2. With the addition of carbon emissions in ICMS 3, it is now called "Groups" and "Sub-Groups" to make them common for costs and carbon emissions.

Hierarchical framework

  1. Simple
    • This framework is simpler than that commonly used in Hong Kong, which is for building works only.
  2. Shared groups
    • Construction, Renewal and Maintenance all share the same Groups.
  3. Composite and prefabricated work
    • It is covered.
  4. Development budget
    • For new developments, the total of the Acquisition Costs and Construction Costs represents the capital cost of development or development budgetary cost.

Codes

  1. Code: 01.2.03.030
    • Meaning: Buildings: Construction: Structure: Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs).

Level 1

Project Type

01.

Buildings

Level 2

Category

2.

Construction

Level 3

Group

03.

Structure

Level 4

Sub-Group

030

Frame and Slabs

Relationship between ICMS, LCC and WLC

  1. ‘Occupancy Costs’ are considered part of the ‘Non-Construction Costs’.
  2. Compatible with ISO 15686-5:2017 Buildings and constructed assets – Service life planning – Part 5: Life-cycle costing.

Carbon reporting framework

  1. The reporting structures for costs and carbon emissions are identical.

Groups and Sub-Groups

Acquisition Groups and Sub-Groups

  1. Carbon emissions are reported for Acquisition only if they are significant.

  2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

Code

Description

   

Group (Level 3)

   

Sub-Group (Level 4)

 

1.

 

Acquisition Costs (AC) | Acquisition Carbon Emissions (AE) (each Sub-Group includes Risk Allowances)

 

01.

Site acquisition

 

01.010

Costs and premium required to procure site

 

01.020

Compensation to existing occupiers

 

01.030

Demolition, removal and modification of existing properties by way of payment to existing owners instead of carrying out physical work

 

01.040

Contributions for the preservation of heritage, culture and environment

 

01.050

Related fees to agents, lawyers, and the like

 

01.060

Related taxes and statutory charges

 

02.

Administrative, finance, legal and marketing expenses

 

02.010

Client’s general office overheads

 

02.020

Client’s project-specific administrative expenses:

    in-house project management and design team

    supporting project staff

    project office venue, furniture and equipment if not included in Constructor’s preliminaries | site overheads

    stores and workshops

    safety and insurances

    staff training

    accommodation and travelling expenses for in-house team and external parties

 

02.030

Interest and finance costs

 

02.040

Legal expenses

 

02.050

Accounting expenses

 

02.060

Sales, leasing, marketing, advertising and promotional expenses

 

02.070

Taxes and statutory charges related to sales and lease

 

02.080

License and permit charges for operation and use

Construction | Renewal | Maintenance Groups and Sub-Groups: Buildings

  1. Carbon emissions are reported at the Sub-Group level by exception.

  2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

Code

Description

   

Group (Level 3)

   

Sub-Group (Level 4)

 

2.

 

Construction Costs (CC) | Construction Carbon Emissions (CE)

3.

 

Renewal Costs (RC) | Renewal Carbon Emissions (RE)

5.

 

Maintenance Costs (MC) | Maintenance Carbon Emissions (ME

   

(CC | CE, RC | RE, and MC | ME share the same Groups below, so far as applicable. Those separated by ‘ | ’ in [ ] are respective alternative terms.)

 

01.

Demolition, site preparation and formation

 

01.010

Site survey and ground investigation

 

01.020

Environmental treatment

 

01.030

Sampling of hazardous or useful materials or conditions

 

01.040

Temporary fencing

 

01.050

Demolition of existing buildings and support to adjacent structures

 

01.060

Site surface clearance (clearing, grubbing, topsoil stripping, tree felling, minor earthwork, removal)

 

01.070

Tree transplant

 

01.080

Site formation and slope treatment

 

01.090

Temporary surface drainage and dewatering

 

01.100

Temporary protection, diversion and relocation of public utilities

 

01.110

Erosion control

 

02.

Substructure

 

02.010

Foundation piling and underpinning:

    mobilisation and demobilisation

    trial piles and caisson

    permanent piles and caisson

    pile and caisson testing

    underpinning

 

02.020

Foundations up to top of lowest floor slabs:

    excavation and disposal

    lateral supports

    raft footings, pile caps, column bases, wall footings, strap beams, tie beams

    substructure walls and columns

    lowest floor slabs and beams (excluding and beyond basement bottom slabs)

    lift pits

    composite or prefabricated work

 

02.030

Basement sides and bottom:

    excavation and disposal

    lateral supports

    bottom slabs and blinding

    sides

    vertical waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and skin wall

    horizontal waterproof tanking, drainage blanket, drains and topping slab

    insulation

    lift pits, sump pits, sleeves

    composite or prefabricated work

 

03.

Structure

 

03.010

Structural removal and alterations

 

03.020

Basement suspended floors (up to top of ground floor slabs):

    structural walls and columns

    beams and slabs

    staircases

 

03.030

Frames and slabs (above top of ground floor slabs):

    structural walls and columns

    upper floor beams and slabs

    roof beams and slabs

    staircases

    fireproofing to steel structure

 

03.040

Tanks, pools, sundries

 

03.050

Composite or prefabricated work

 

04.

Architectural works | Non-structural works

 

04.010

Non-structural removal and alterations

 

04.020

External elevations:

    non-structural external walls and features

    external wall finishes except cladding

    facade cladding and curtain walls

    external windows

    external doors

    external shop fronts

    roller shutters and fire shutters

 

04.030

Roof finishes, skylights and landscaping (including waterproofing and insulation):

    roof finishes

    skylights

    other roof features

    roof landscaping (hard and soft)

 

04.040

Internal divisions:

    non-structural internal walls and partitions

    shop fronts

    toilet cubicles

    moveable partitions

    cold rooms

    internal doors

    internal windows

    roller shutters and fire shutters

    sundry concrete work

 

04.050

Fittings and sundries:

    balustrades, railings and handrails

    staircases and catwalk not forming part of the structure, cat ladders

    cabinets, cupboards, shelves, counters, benches, notice boards, blackboards

    exit signs, directory signs

    window and door dressings

    decorative features

    interior landscaping

    access panels, fire service cabinets

    sundries

 

04.060

Finishes under cover:

    floor finishes (internal and external)

    internal wall finishes and cladding

    ceiling finishes and false ceilings (internal or external)

 

04.070

Builder’s work in connection with services:

    plinth, bases

    fire-proofing enclosure

    hoisting beams, lift pit separation screens, lift shaft separator beams

    suspended manholes

    cable trenches, trench covers

    sleeves, openings and the like not allowed for in ‘Fittings and sundries’

 

04.080

Composite or prefabricated work

 

05.

Services and equipment

 

05.010

Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems/air conditioners:

    seawater system

    cooling water system

    chilled water system

    heating water system

    steam and condensate system

    fuel oil system

    water treatment

    air handling and distribution system

    condensate drain system

    unitary air-conditioning system

    mechanical ventilation system

    kitchen ventilation system

    fume and smoke extraction system

    anaesthetic gas-extraction system

    window and split-type air conditioners

    air-curtains

    fans

    related electrical and control systems

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.020

Electrical services:

    high-voltage transformers and switchboards

    incoming mains, low-voltage transformers and switchboards

    mains and submains

    standby system

    lighting and power

    uninterruptible power supply

    electric underfloor heating

    local electrical heating units

    earthing/lightning protection and bonding

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.030

Fitting out lighting fittings

 

05.040

Extra low voltage electrical services:

    information and communications technology system

    staff paging/location

    public address system

    building automation

    security and alarm

    close circuit television

    communal aerial broadcast distribution and the like

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.050

Water supply and drainage above ground or inside basement:

    cold water supply

    hot water supply

    flushing water supply

    grey water supply

    cleansing water supply

    irrigation water supply

    rainwater disposal

    soil and waste disposal

    planter drainage disposal

    kitchen drainage disposal

    related electrical and control systems

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.060

Supply of sanitary fittings and fixtures (installation included in ‘Water supply and above ground drainage’ unless not separable from costs of ‘Fittings and sundries’)

 

05.070

Disposal systems:

    refuse

    laboratory waste

    industrial waste

    incinerator

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.080

Fire services:

    fire hydrant and hose reel system

    wet risers

    sprinkler system

    deluge system

    gaseous extinguishing system

    foam extinguishing system

    audio/visual advisory system

    automatic fire alarm and detection system

    portable hand-operated appliances and sundries

    related electrical and control systems

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.090

Gas services:

    coal gas

    natural gas

    liquid petroleum gas

    medical gas/laboratory gas

    industrial gas/compressed air/instrument air

    vacuum

    steam

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.100

Movement systems:

    lifts | elevators

    platform lifts

    escalators

    travellators | moving walkways

    conveyors

    submissions, testing and commissioning

 

05.110

Gondolas

 

05.120

Turntables

 

05.130

Generators

 

05.140

Energy-saving features

 

05.150

Water and wastewater treatment equipment

 

05.160

Fountains, pools and filtration plant

 

05.170

Powered building signage

 

05.175

Audio/visual entertainment system

 

05.180

Kitchen equipment

 

05.190

Cold room equipment

 

05.200

Laboratory equipment

 

05.210

Medical equipment

 

05.220

Hotel equipment

 

05.230

Car park or entrances access control

 

05.240

Domestic appliances

 

05.250

Other specialist services

 

05.260

Builder’s profit and attendance on services

 

06.

Surface and underground drainage

 

06.010

Surface water drainage

 

06.020

Storm water drainage

 

06.030

Foul and wastewater drainage

 

06.040

Drainage disconnections and connections

 

06.050

CCTV inspection of existing or new drains

 

06.060

Buried Process Pipe

 

07.

External and ancillary works

 

07.010

Permanent retaining structures

 

07.020

Site enclosures and divisions

 

07.030

Ancillary structures

 

07.040

Roads and paving

 

07.050

Landscaping (hard and soft)

 

07.060

Fittings and equipment

 

07.070

External services:

    water supply

    gas supply

    power supply

    communications supply

    external lighting

    utility disconnections and connections

 

08.

Preliminaries | Constructors’ site overheads | general requirements

 

08.010

Construction management including site management staff and support labour

 

08.020

Temporary access roads and storage areas, traffic management and diversion (at the Constructors’ discretion)

 

08.030

Temporary site fencing and securities

 

08.040

Commonly shared construction plant

 

08.050

Commonly shared scaffolding

 

08.060

Other temporary facilities and services

 

08.070

Technology and communications: telephone, broadband, hardware, software

 

08.080

Constructor’s submissions, reports and as-built documentation

 

08.090

Quality monitoring, recording and inspections

 

08.100

Safety, health and environmental management

 

08.110

Insurances, bonds, guarantees and warranties

 

08.120

Constructor’s statutory fees and charges

 

08.130

Testing and commissioning

 

08.140

Extras for extreme climatic or working conditions (if priced separately according to local pricing practice)

 

09.

Risk Allowances

 

09.010

Design development allowance

 

09.020

Construction contingencies

 

09.030

Price Level Adjustments:

    until tendering

    during construction

 

09.040

Exchange rate fluctuation adjustments

 

10.

Taxes and Levies

 

10.010

Paid by the Constructor

 

10.020

Paid by the Client in relation to the construction contract payments

 

11.

Work and utilities off-site (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

11.010

Connections to, diversion of and capacity enhancement of public utility mains or sources off-site up to mains connections on-site:

    electricity

    transformers

    water

    sewer

    gas

    telecommunications

 

11.020

Public access roads and footpaths

 

12.

Production and loose furniture, fittings and equipment (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

12.010

Loose production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment not normally provided before completion of construction

 

12.020

Fixed production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment installed before completion of construction

    production (including process and operating) equipment (including furniture and fittings)

    related instrument and control systems

    related safety and environmental control systems

    related storage and transfer systems

    services and equipment as described in Group 05 but dedicated to serve production equipment

    surface and underground drainage as described in Group 06 but dedicated to serve production equipment

    testing and commissioning

    licences and certifications to start production

    risks allowances

    taxes and levies

 

13.

Construction-related consultants and supervision (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

13.010

Consultants’ fees and reimbursable:

    architects (architectural, landscape, interior design, technical, etc.)

    engineers (geotechnical, civil, structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing, technical, etc.)

    project managers

    surveyors (quantity surveying, land surveying, building surveying, cost engineering, etc.)

    specialist consultants (environmental, traffic, acoustic, facade, BIM, etc.)

    value management studies

 

13.020

Charges and levies payable to statutory bodies or their appointed agencies (in connection with planning, design, tender and contract approvals, supervision and acceptance inspections)

 

13.030

Site supervision charges (including their accommodation and travels)

 

13.040

Payments to testing authorities or laboratories

Construction | Renewal | Maintenance Groups and Sub-Groups - Civil Engineering Works

  1. Carbon emissions are reported by exception at the Sub-Group level.

  2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

Code

Description

   

Group (Level 3)

   

Sub-Group (Level 4)

2.

 

Construction (CC | CE)

3.

 

Renewal (RC | RE)

5.

 

Maintenance (MC | ME)

   

(CC | CE, RC | RE, and MC | ME share the same Groups below, so far as applicable. Those separated by ‘|’ in [ ] are alternative terms for respective Groups)

 

01.

Demolition, site preparation and formation

 

01.010

Site survey and ground investigation

 

01.020

Environmental treatment

 

01.030

Sampling of hazardous or useful materials or conditions

 

01.040

Temporary fencing

 

01.050

Demolition of existing structures and support to adjacent structures

 

01.060

Site surface clearance (clearing, grubbing, topsoil stripping, tree felling, minor earthwork, removal)

 

01.070

Tree transplant

 

01.080

General site formation and slope treatment (including embankments / cuttings required by more than one Sub-Project)

 

01.090

Temporary surface drainage and dewatering

 

01.100

Temporary access roads and storage areas (provided under an advance contract)

 

01.110

Temporary protection, diversion and relocation of public utilities

 

01.120

Erosion control

 

01.600

Water surface development (including common facilities and services, and dredge spoil recovery area)

 

01.610

Dredge spoil recovery area

 

01.620

Hydrographic / bathymetry surveys

 

01.630

Water quality monitoring

 

01.640

Excavation (of soft silt, peat, sands, gravels, clay, rock, etc., including mobilisation and demobilisation of excavators, blasting, transportation, disposal, reclamation, compaction and monitoring)

 

01.650

Dredging (of soft silt, peat, sands, gravels, clay, rock, etc., including mobilisation and demobilisation of dredgers and barges, blasting, transportation, disposal, reclamation, compaction and monitoring)

 

01.660

Special disposal and treatment of contaminated sediment

 

01.670

Reclamation or filling (with imported rock, concrete, or other hard materials)

 

01.680

Reclamation or filling (with dredged materials)

 

01.690

Surcharging or consolidation of lands and monitoring of settlement

 

01.700

Habitat protection systems

 

02.

Substructure

 

02.010

Embankments / cuttings (specifically required for the Project or Sub-Project)

 

02.020

Excavation, disposal and lateral supports (specifically to receive any substructure construction but excluding general site formation and slope treatment)

 

02.025

Geotextile or other geomembranes

 

02.030

Trenching / common trenches

 

02.040

Drilling / boring

 

02.050

Piling / anchoring

 

02.060

Structural backfill / ground remediation

 

02.070

Earth-retaining structures

 

02.080

Abutments / wing walls

 

02.090

Pile caps / footings / bases (nearest to the ground level or water level if constructed in water)

 

02.100

Sub-base to pavements and rail track structures

 

02.110

Bases to supports for tanks, pipes, well heads and the like

 

02.120

Beds and surrounds to underground pipes

 

02.600

Pile retaining walls (combi walls / H-pile walls / secant piled walls

    sheet piled walls

    gravity quay walls

    relieving platforms

    pile supported structures

    special types

 

02.610

Diaphragm walls

 

02.620

Quays / docks / wharfs / moorings / piers /dry dock structure foundations

 

02.630

Marine anchor systems

 

02.640

Mooring dolphins

 

02.650

Breakwaters

    cores

    primary armour (interlocking units)

    secondary armour

 

02.660

Rock revetments / gabions

 

02.670

Cofferdams

 

02.680

Bank protection

 

03.

Structure

 

03.010

Piers and towers

 

03.020

Suspension system

 

03.030

Decks

 

03.040

Bearings

 

03.050

Tunnel lining

 

03.060

Roads / track bases

 

03.070

Pavements

 

03.080

Service roads and approaches

 

03.090

Parapets / edge treatment

 

03.100

Main structures (in case of land formation and reclamation, referring to those of project types not separately reported as Sub-Projects)

 

03.105

Service stations and houses for district utility services

 

03.110

Tanks, rigs, storage containers and the like

 

03.120

Supports for tanks, pipes and the like

 

03.130

Civil pipework

 

03.140

Valves and fittings

 

03.600

Seawalls

 

03.610

Lake and river lining

 

03.620

Prefabricated marine structures – off-site fabrication

 

03.630

Prefabricated marine structures – transport to site location

 

03.640

Prefabricated marine structures – installation on site location

 

03.650

Slipways / gangways / linkways

 

03.660

Dock and lock gates

 

03.670

Pontoons

 

03.680

Coastal protection systems

 

03.690

Deck / surface structures (ground bearing or suspended concrete slabs)

 

03.700

Locks and guidance structures

 

03.710

Revetments

 

03.720

Flood defences

 

03.730

Navigational aids

 

03.740

Dry docks structures

 

03.750

Weirs

 

03.760

Aqueducts

 

04.

Non-structural works

 

04.010

Non-structural removal and alterations

 

04.020

Non-structural construction

 

04.030

Running surface

 

04.040

Signage, markings and the like

 

04.050

Gantries and the like

 

04.060

Safety facilities

 

04.070

Barriers / rails and means of access

 

04.080

Special equipment and fittings

 

04.090

Interior landscaping

 

04.100

Builders’ work in connection with services

 

05.

Services and equipment

 

05.005

District heating, ventilating and cooling systems

 

05.010

Mechanical systems

 

05.020

Lighting systems

 

05.030

Illuminations

 

05.040

Low-voltage power supply

 

05.050

Cables/cable trays

 

05.060

Other electrical services

 

05.070

Control systems and instrumentation

    signalling systems

    telecommunications systems

 

05.080

Pipe racks / supports (localised)

 

05.090

Water supply and drainage above ground or inside underground construction (localised)

 

05.100

Refuse and waste disposal systems

 

05.110

Fire services

 

05.115

Gas services

 

05.120

Movement systems: lifts / elevators / conveyors

 

05.600

Boat lifts

 

05.610

Cranes / rigs/ rails

 

05.620

Under water / sea service pipe installation

 

05.630

Under water / sea electrical / data cabling

 

06.

Surface and underground drainage

 

06.010

Surface water drainage

 

06.020

Storm water drainage

 

06.030

Foul and waste water drainage

 

06.040

Pumping systems

 

06.050

Drainage connections

 

07.

External and ancillary works

 

07.010

Site enclosures and divisions

 

07.020

Ancillary structures

 

07.030

Roads and paving (not amounting to a Sub-Project)

 

07.040

Landscaping (hard and soft)

 

07.050

Fittings and equipment

 

08.

Preliminaries | Constructors’ site overheads | general requirements

 

08.010

Construction management including site management staff and support labour

 

08.020

Temporary access roads and storage areas, traffic management and diversion (at the Constructors’ discretion)

 

08.025

Temporary concrete batching yard, precast concrete casting yard

 

08.030

Temporary site fencing and securities

 

08.040

Commonly shared construction plant

 

08.045

Marine plant and equipment (e.g. ships / barges / vessels, floating cranes, dredgers, floating drill rigs, cofferdams, caissons, etc.)

 

08.050

Commonly shared scaffolding

 

08.055

Workpeople living accommodation

 

08.060

Other temporary facilities and services

 

08.065

Mobilisation and demobilisation where significant and not elsewhere reported

 

08.070

Technology and communications: telephone, broadband, hardware, software

 

08.080

Constructor’s submissions, reports and as-built documentation

 

08.090

Quality monitoring, recording and inspections

 

08.100

Safety, health and environmental management

 

08.110

Insurances, bonds, guarantees and warranties

 

08.120

Constructor’s statutory fees and charges

 

08.130

Testing and commissioning

 

08.140

Extras for extreme climatic or working conditions (if priced separately according to local pricing practice)

 

09.

Risk Allowances

 

09.010

Design development allowance

 

09.020

Construction contingencies

 

09.030

Price level adjustments

    until tendering

    during construction

 

09.040

Exchange rate fluctuation adjustments

 

010.

Taxes and Levies

 

010.010

Paid by the Constructors

 

010.020

Paid by the Client in relation to the construction contract payments

 

11.

Work and utilities off-site (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

11.010

Connections to, diversion of and capacity enhancement of public utility mains or sources off-site up to mains connections on-site:

    electricity

    transformers

    water

    sewer

    gas

    telecommunications

 

11.020

Public access roads and footpaths

 

12.

Production and loose furniture, fittings and equipment (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

12.010

Loose production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment not normally provided before completion of construction

 

12.020

Fixed production, process and operating furniture, fittings and equipment installed before completion of construction

 

13.

Construction-related consultants and supervision (including related risk allowances, taxes and levies)

 

13.010

Consultants’ fees and reimbursable:

    architects (architectural, landscape, interior design, technical, etc.)

    engineers (geotechnical, civil, structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing, technical, etc.)

    project managers

    surveyors (quantity surveying, land surveying, building surveying, cost engineering, etc.)

    specialist consultants (environmental, traffic, acoustic, facade, BIM, etc.)

    value management studies

 

13.020

Charges and levies payable to statutory bodies or their appointed agencies (in connection with planning, design, tender and contract approvals, supervision and acceptance inspections)

 

13.030

Site supervision charges (including their accommodation and travels)

 

13.040

Payments to testing authorities or laboratories

Operation Groups and Sub-Groups

  1. Carbon emissions are reported by exception at the Sub-Group level.
  2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

Code

Description

   

Group (Level 3)

   

Sub-Group (Level 4)

4.

 

Operation Costs (OC) | Operation Carbon Emissions (OE)

 

01.

Cleaning

 

01.010

External cleaning (routine and periodic)

 

01.020

Internal cleaning (routine and periodic)

 

01.030

Specialist cleaning (define type)

 

02.

Utilities

 

02.010

Fuel (state type: gas / electricity / oil and other fuel sources)

 

02.020

Water, drainage and sewerage

 

03.

Waste management

 

03.010

Waste collection and disposal

 

03.020

Recycling and savage

 

04.

Security

 

04.010

Physical security

 

04.020

Remote monitoring

 

05.

Information and communications technology

 

05.010

Communication systems

 

05.020

Specialist technology / sensors

 

06.

Operators’ site overheads | general requirements

 

06.010

Administration

 

06.020

Property insurance

 

07.

Risk Allowances

 

07.010

Operation related (user definable)

 

07.020

Contractual obligations

 

08.

Taxes and Levies

 

08.010

Taxes

 

08.020

Levies

End of Life Groups and Sub-Groups

  1. Carbon emissions are reported by exception at the Sub-Group level.
  2. 2-digit code for Groups and 3-digit code for Sub-Groups.

Code

Description

   

Group (Level 3)

   

Sub-Group (Level 4)

6

6.

End of Life Costs (EC) | End of Life Carbon Emissions (EE)

 

01.

Disposal inspection

 

01.010

Dilapidations report

 

01.020

Contractual hand-back obligations

 

02.

Decommissioning and decontamination

 

02.010

Shutdowns and decommissioning

 

02.020

Decontamination

 

03.

Demolition, reclamation and salvage

 

03.010

Demolition

 

03.020

Reclamation

 

03.030

Salvage

 

04.

Reinstatement

 

04.010

Agreed reinstatement works

 

04.020

Contractual obligations

 

05.

Constructors’ site overheads | general requirements

 

05.010

Administration

 

05.020

Overheads (project specific)

 

06.

Risk Allowances

 

06.010

End of life specific (user definable)

 

06.020

Abnormal risks (user definable)

 

07.

Taxes and Levies

 

07.010

Taxes

 

07.020

Levies

 

07.030

Credit for grants

Rationale for some classifications

Composite or prefabricated work

  1. There are items for ‘composite or prefabricated work’, but in principle their costs and/or carbon emissions are to be split into the relevant Groups and Sub-Groups as much as possible to facilitate analysis and comparison with non-composite or prefabricated work.
  2. Include in the ‘composite or prefabricated work’ only if the composite or prefabricated work integrates different construction components across different Groups and Sub-Groups serving the functions of more than one Sub-Group and is priced without further breakdown in the contract.

Substructure and Structure Delineation

  1. “Superstructure” is not used.
  2. The “Substructure” and “Structure” delineation for various project type is shown in the diagrams below.
  3. Why are they delineated into “Substructure” and “Structure”, not “Substructure” and “Superstructure”?
  4. Usually, substructure refers to the structure below the ground surface and superstructure refers to the structure above ground.
  5. However, as shown in the diagrams, many of the main structures for civil engineering works (such as roads, tunnels, tanks, pipelines, wells, boreholes, etc.) can be totally below the ground surface, if these main structures are classified as substructure, there would be nothing left to be reported for the superstructure.
  6. Therefore, ICMS classifies all the main structures as “Structure” whether or not they are underground or underwater, and classifies all structures supporting or encasing the main structures as “Substructure”.

Split of Basement for Buildings

  1. The basement sides and bottom (shown in deep blue in the diagram below) are classified as an item (code [2|3|5].02.030.030) under the Substructure Group, while the basement suspended floors (shown in red box in the diagram below) are classified as a Sub-Group (code [2|3|5].03.020) under the Structure Cost Group.
  2.  
  3. Why are the basement sides, bottom and suspended floors not grouped together as substructure or basement, like common language use? It is also usual for tender pricing to group the basement works under a section.
  4. Answers:
  5. The design of the basement sides and bottom do not vary in direct proportion to the total building floor area nor to the total basement floor area, and is highly dependent on the site conditions even for the same building design. The cost of the basement sides and bottom should therefore be reported separately from the cost of the basement suspended floors.
  6. If the basement suspended floors are reported separately from the superstructure, the “unit cost per total building floor area” of the basement suspended floors ($400/m2) and of the superstructure ($2,700/m2) as given in the high-level cost summary, as shown in the example below, would not be useful when one wants to roughly estimate how much a similar building of 12,000 m2 would cost. One would need to know the floor areas of the basement and the superstructure or their proportions, and use $4M and $27M for pro-rata calculations.
  7. While it may be easy to separate the architectural works | non-structural works into basement and superstructure, it would not be logical from the costing point of view to do a similar separation for services and equipment because it is often required to put main services and equipment serving the whole building in the basement, but allocating the costs of main services and equipment based on their locations would give a misleading unit cost per basement floor area and unit cost per superstructure floor area for further use.
  8. If the basement suspended floors and superstructure are grouped together, the unit cost per total building floor area ($3,100/m2) as shown in the example below would then be more useful for quick pro-rata calculation and comparison. Furthermore, per their respective floor areas, the design of the basement suspended floors is generally heavier than that of the superstructure, but the former is exclusive of external structural walls, while the latter is inclusive. The two aspects can have an off-setting effect such that $4,000/m2 and $3,000/m2 in the above example can be closer to each other, and grouping together would be appropriate.
  9. ICMS is for high-level cost presentation for comparative benchmarking and option appraisal, etc. The above classification should make the unit costs more readily useful for such purposes. For tender pricing, users can choose to group the basement works in their preferred ways.
  10. If one wants to show the basement and superstructure costs separately in the cost report to match the sections in tender pricing, one can adopt the following presentation:

External structural walls as structural parts vs External elevations

  1. Some cost classifications classify external structural walls as part of the “External elevations” or as “External walls” whether above or below ground. Why does ICMS 2 not so classify but classify the external structural walls as structural parts?
  2. Answers:
  3. External structural walls serve two functions, one taking structural loading of the building, and the other enclosing the building. 
  4. It is considered difficult to separate the external structural walls (reinforcement in particular) at “A” below from the rest of the core structure, and it would give an incomplete structural cost if both the external structural walls at “A” and “B” below are grouped under “External elevations”, say, when answering the question “what would be the structural cost without non-structural parts?”. 
  5. For construction, the structural parts should come first before the non-structural parts are added on. Therefore, the external structural walls are classified as structural parts under:
    • [2|3|5].02.030: Basement sides and bottom – sides
    • [2|3|5].03.030: Structure – Frames and slabs – structural walls and columns
  6. For present day buildings, the design of the external structural walls above ground and that below ground can be very different, the walls are therefore separated as above.

Fitting out lighting fittings / Supply of sanitary fittings

  1. Lighting fittings (decorative) and sanitary fittings are usually chosen by the architects instead of the building services engineers, and their costs are not usually included in the cost estimates provided by the engineers, they are therefore separately as two Sub-Groups.
  2. However, since they are more related to Services and Equipment, they are therefore included as part of “Services and Equipment”.

Builder's profit and attendance on services

  1. Services and equipment are likely the subject of nominated sub-contracts on which the builders price profit and attendance separately. This Sub-Group is intended for such profit and attendance.
  2. The costs of other works should include profit and attendance.

Project Attributes and Values

  1. To enable consistent and concise evaluation and comparison between different Projects or different design schemes, ICMS provides a set of Project Attributes and Values describing the principal characteristics of each Project or Sub-Project.
  2. The Project Attributes are given under the following groups:

Common

Each Project Type

  • Report
  • Construction Cost Price Level
  • Construction Cost Currency Conversion
  • Construction Programme
  • Site
  • Construction Procurement
  • Life Cycle Cost Related
  • Carbon Emissions Related
  • Code
  • Works
  • Project Quantities
  1. Examples:

Project Quantities

  1. ICMS provides the following Project Quantities (physical or functional) such that the total costs can be expressed as unit cost per unit project quantity for comparison and benchmarking purposes.

Projects

Project Quantities (Physical)

Project Quantities (Functional)

Buildings

  • Site area (within legal boundary of building site, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (m² | ft²)
  • Covered area on plan (m² | ft²)
  • Gross external floor area as IPMS 1 (EXTERNAL) (m² | ft²)
  • Gross internal floor area as IPMS 2 (INTERNAL) (m² | ft²)
  • number of occupants | number of bedrooms | number of hospital beds | number of hotel rooms | number of car parking spaces | number of classrooms | number of students | number of passengers | number of boarding gates | production capacity (specifics to be stated) | other stated

Roads and motorways

  • Total length (between two places, irrespective of number of lanes) (km | miles)
  • Equated lane length (being the length of all lanes along the route, including those in passing loops, sidings and depots reduced toa single length) (km | miles)
  • Total paved area (m² | ft²)
  • capacity (vehicles per hour)

Railways

  • Route length (between start and finish points of longest route plus start and finish points of ancillary routes irrespective of number of tracks) (km | miles)
  • Equated track length (being the length of all tracks along the route, including those in passing loops, sidings and depots reduced to a single length) (km | miles)
  • weight of traffic expressed as estimated gross million tonnes or tons per annum (M tonnes | M tons/year)
  • passenger journeys (million journeys per year)

Bridges

  • Deck length measured from face to face of abutments (km | miles)
  • Surface area of deck (m² | ft²)
  • capacity (vehicles | litres | gallons | tonnes | tons per hour)

Tunnels

  • End to end length (km | miles)
  • Equated track length (being the length of all tracks inside the tunnel) (km | miles)
  • Equated lane length (being the length of all tracks inside the tunnel) (km | miles)
  • Volume of excavation (m³ | yd³)
  • capacity (vehicles | litres | gallons | tonnes | tons per hour)

Wastewater treatment works

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • capacity (mega litres | litres | million gallons | gallons per day)

Water treatment works

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • capacity (mega litres | litres | million gallons | gallons per day)

Pipelines

  • Total length of pipes (km | miles)
  • Length from servicing inlets to outlets (km | miles)
  • capacity (litres | gallons | m³ | ft³ per hour)

Wells and boreholes

  • Total length drilled/bored (m | ft)
  • capacity (m³ | ft³ | litres | gallons per hour)

Power-generating plants

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • capacity (MW)

Chemical plants

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • output of products (m³ | ft³ | tonnes | tons | litres | gallons per day)

Refineries

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
 

Refineries

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • input of crude oil (tonnes | tons | litres | gallons | barrels per day)
  • output of products (tonnes | tons | litres | gallons | barrels per day)

Dams and reservoirs

  • Site area (surface area of stored liquid at maximum capacity) (square km | square miles)
  • reservoir capacity (million m3 | million yd3)
  • power generation capacity (MW)

Mines and quarries

  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • ore extraction (tonnes | tons per annum)
  • throughput of product (tonnes | tons per day)

Offshore structures

  • Surface area of platform (m2 | ft2)
  • Mass prefabricated offshore structure (tonnes | ton)
  • crude oil production (tonnes | tons/day | barrels/day)
  • natural gas production (measured at 100 kPa (0.987 atmosphere) and 15oC or 14.696 psi (1 atmosphere) and 60oF (m3 | ft3)
  • electricity production MWh | BTU

Nearshore works

  • Quay length + retaining height (m + m | ft + ft)
  • Number of fenders
  • Fender surface load (kN/m² | Ib/ft²)
  • Surface area of quayside (m2 | ft2)
  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work including land reclaimed from the sea, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • description and units to be provided where possible

Ports

  • Quay length + height (from seabed to top of retaining structure) (m + m | ft + ft)
  • Surface area of structure (m2 | ft2)
  • Volume of breakwaters/dredging/ other stated (m3 | ft3)
  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work including land reclaimed from the sea, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • functional units (ships | passengers | tonnes | tons per year)

Waterway works

  • Length of structure (m | ft)
  • Site area (area of land covered by permanent work including land reclaimed from the sea, excluding temporary working areas outside the site) (hectares | acres)
  • description and units to be provided where possible

Land formation and reclamation

  • Total land area (hectares | acres)
 

 

End of Page