Bills of Quantities 工程量清单

Bills of Quantities 工程量清单 KCTang Wed, 24/12/2014 - 15:49

Concepts of Bills of Quantities 工程量清单的概念

Concepts of Bills of Quantities 工程量清单的概念 KCTang Sun, 21/12/2014 - 00:23

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21 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

What are Bills of Quantities?

  1. A Bill of Quantities is a list of quantified items of work or services required for the completion of construction works with the quantities of the work or services stated in appropriate units of measurement and with materials, workmanship, quality and standard required for the work or services fully described.
  2. "Bills of Quantities" are usually given in plural since usually there are more than one bill in a set of Bills of Quantities and more than one item in a Bill of Quantities.
  3. Bills of Quantities are usually prepared by Quantity Surveyors, a member of the Consultant teams to the Developers of construction projects.

工程量清单是甚幺?

  1. 列项
    • 把完成某工程所需的实物或服务分项列出
  2. 量化
    • 以恰当的计量单位予以量化
  3. 说明
    • 对所需的材料、工艺、质量及标准充份说明

Functions of Bills of Quantities

  1. The primary function of Bills of Quantities is for inclusion in Tender Documents issued to Tenderers for pricing such that all tenders are priced based on the same set of items and quantities and the returned priced Bills of Quantities will be useful for tender analysis.
  2. The secondary functions, not necessarily less important functions, of Bills of Quantities are:
    • The rates in the priced Bills of Quantities, when accepted, will become the contract rates for the purposes of pricing payments, variations and valuations.
    • The priced Bills of Quantities can be used for valuing work in progress.
    • The priced Bills of Quantities can be analysed to produce cost analysis of the building or construction.

工程量清单的功能

  1. 招标
    • 传达工程内容
    • 较准确的投标 – 编标者在编清单过程与建筑师及工程师保持密切的沟通,编出的工程量清单会比较由承包方自己编的更有代表性
    • 较少的合同后争议 – 编得好的工程量清单可减少项目涵盖范图不清楚所带来的争议及减少索赔
  2. 投标
    • 为计价依据
    • 投标乃按同样的基础计价
    • 减低投标者的投标费用,投标者不需要花金钱及资源去计算工程量
  3. 评标
    • 便于比较
    • 评标的比较分析可集中于单价方面
    • 灭少数量差对中标资格的影响
  4. 定标
    • 成为合同文件的一部份
    • 工程量清单所填写的单价获接纳后成为合同单价,用作付款估值、变更计价
  5. 施工
    • 为施工及验收标准
    • 比图纸或规范有更明确说明
  6. 付款
    • 方便计算进度款
  7. 结算
    • 有约束力的单价
    • 较易计算减帐 – 在计算工程变更的减帐时,可以查阅原来的计算来扣减,而不必再计
  8. 造价分析
    • 可予以分析得出建筑物或建设工程的造价指标和工程含量

Types of Bills of Quantities

  1. Based on the nature of the quantities, Bills of Quantities can either be:
    • Firm Bills of Quantities; or
    • Provisional Bills of Quantities (sometimes called Approximate Bills of Quantities).
  2. For Firm Bills of Quantities, all quantities are meant to have been accurately measured based on the Tender Drawings and Specification and therefore do not require remeasurement in the settlement of the Final Accounts. If it is found after contract award that the quantities are wrong, the Contract Sum will be adjusted for the rectification of the errors. The risks of the errors in the Bills of Quantities therefore rest with the Employer.
  3. For Provisional Bills of Quantities, all quantities are meant to have been approximately measured from the Tender Drawings and Specification or estimated based on predictions. The quantities will require remeasurement in the settlement of the Final Accounts. Any errors or imprecision in estimating the quantities or describing the work will be rectified once and for all in the Remeasurement Bills. However, if the final as constructed items and quantities differ from the original provisional items and quantities substantially, the Contractor may argue for an adjustment of the unit rates. If the total value of the Remeasurement Bills varies substantially from the value of the original Provisional Bills of Quantities, the Client may also query.

Contractors’ Bills of Quantities / Schedule of Quantities and Rates

  1. If Bills of Quantities are not provided to Tenderers for tendering, the Tenderers will be required to measure their own quantities and submit their own itemized quantities and rates build-up or breakdown of the tender sums. To distinguish such kind of build-up or breakdown from Bills of Quantities provided to Tenderers, they are called "Schedule of Quantities and Rates" or simply "Schedule of Rates".
  2. The quantities of Schedule of Quantities and Rates do not form part of the Contract. This means that any errors or omissions or excess in the quantities or items in the Schedule of Quantities and Rates will be regarded as the risks of the Tenderers and the Contract Sum will not be rectified for the errors.
  3. In theory, the quantities of a defined scope of works should be the same. However, the format, classification, sequence, items and descriptions of Schedules of Quantities and Rates prepared by different Tenderers will be different. This would make tender analysis and comparison very difficult and less precise.
  4. Each Tenderer would have to spend money and resources to prepare the Schedule of Quantities and Rates. However, only one out of several Tenderers will be successful in obtaining the contract for each tendering, and there is no guarantee that the value of work secured will be equally spread amongst Tenderers. Tenderers would have to make short-cuts or approximations when preparing the Schedule of Quantities and Rates in order to reduce the cost of tendering.
  5. With the common practice of awarding the contract to the lowest Tenderer, it is sometimes said that the lowest Tenderer is the lowest because he has made serious errors by under-measurement or under-pricing.
  6. Contractors who have under-priced will be more likely to explore avenues for claims in order to recover the loss. This would make post contract management difficult.
  7. Since the quantities in the Schedule of Quantities and Rates do not form part of the Contract, for each variation, the quantities of work omitted should be measured rather than relying upon the quantities stated in the Schedule of Quantities of Rates. For example, if the Schedule of Quantities and Rates included a separate item for 100 m2 of false ceilings in the lift lobbies and there is a variation requiring omission of all false ceilings in the lift lobbies, the quantity to be omitted cannot simply be 100 m2 but shall be accurately measured which may turn out to be more or less.
  8. Descriptions in the Schedule of Quantities and Rates are generally simplified or imprecise or incomplete. This will create difficulties in interpreting what are actually covered by and allowed for by an item, and will lead to argument when such items are used for pricing of additions or omissions.
  9. Taking aside the commercial consideration of minimizing the costs, the principle and technique described in this Knowledge Base for the production of Bills of Quantities should also be applicable to the production of Schedule of Quantities and Rates.

Advantages of Bills of Quantities

  • Having discussed the characteristics of Schedule of Quantities and Rates, it is apparent that the advantages of providing Bills of Quantities to Tenderers for pricing are:
    • Comparison of tenders on common basis - Tenders are priced on a common basis. Analysis and comparison of tenders would be on the rates and prices only.
    • Saving Tenderers’ costs of tendering - Tenderers would not need to spend money and resources to measure the Bills of Quantities.
    • More accurate tenders - The quality of Bills of Quantities produced by Quantity Surveyors having dialogue with the Architects and Engineers over a longer period of time should be better than the Schedule of Quantities and Rates produced by Tenderers within shorter period of time with less budget.
    • Easier to calculate omissions - For omission of quantities due to variations in the post contract stage, instead of remeasuring the quantities to be omitted, the original measurements can be referred to for the quantities to be omitted.
    • Less post contract problems - Well prepared Bills of Quantities will reduce the uncertainty as to the coverage of items and reduce claims.

Difficulties for Bills of Quantities

  1. Production of good Bills of Quantities do require substantial number of man-hours which span over a significant period of time. This means fees and time on programme.
  2. Some Developers because of tight development budgets or small development size would not want to spend money in producing Bills of Quantities.
  3. Some Developers would not want to spend some extra few weeks on programme to produce Bills of Quantities.
  4. Some Developers may go to the extreme to say that the quality of Bills of Quantities produced by the Quantity Surveyors is no better than the Schedule of Quantities and Rates produced by Tenderers.
  5. Without the need to produce Bills of Quantities, the Quantity Surveyors’ fees will be reduced, it is therefore of paramount importance that Quantity Surveyors should take the best measures and make the best effort to produce quality Bills of Quantities within the shortest possible time.
  6. It should also be borne in mind that without Bills of Quantities, the time required to deal with tender analysis and post contract management will be increased.

工程量清单的困难

  1. 编制好的工程量清单
    • 需要很多任务时及工日
    • 发包方未必愿意花钱或花时间
    • 亦有些发包方让承包方自己计算承担错误的风险
  2. 要持续地取得任务的关键是
    • 省时地编到好的工程量清单

Verification of Bills of Quantities

  1. Because of the fear that the Bills of Quantities measured by the Quantity Surveyors are not accurate enough that there will be post contract claim for increase in the Contract Sum for rectification of errors of omissions, there is a tendency that some major Developers require the Tenderers to verify the accuracy of the Bills of Quantities during the tendering period. Tenderers are required to correct the errors and submit Tender Sums inclusive of rectification of errors. The risks of the errors in the Bills of Quantities are therefore transferred to the Contractors.
  2. Such practice indicates a mistrust of Quantity Surveyors and defeats the original ideas of saving Tenderers’ costs of tendering.
  3. Some Developers argue that, without discrediting Quantity Surveyors, they would rather play safe. They would rather let the Tenderers price high to cover the errors than to let the errors coming up unexpectedly during the post contract thus upsetting the budget plan.
  4. In reality, the tendering period would not be sufficient for the Tenderers to carry out thorough detailed check of the Bills of Quantities. They can only carry out bulk-checking. Competitive market pressure of tendering will deter Tenderers from allowing buffers for errors.
  5. Some Tender Documents will declare that the Bills of Quantities after verification will be deemed to be the Contractor’s Bills of Quantities or Schedule of Quantities and Rates and that the quantities do not form part of the Contract. The Tender Drawings and Specification become the sole basis of the Contract with the Bills of Quantities excluded. A benefit of Bills of Quantities whereby inadequacy in Tender Drawings and Specification can be made up by properly described or measured items in the Bills of Quantities will be lost since the correct measurement is not evidenced from the Tender Drawings and Specification.
  6. The adoption of the practice to require the Tenderers to verify the Bills of Quantities therefore should not be encouraged. A better alternative is to require the successful Contractor to verify the Bills of Quantities within a defined period after award of the Contract. This would save the Tenderers’ costs of tendering and risks of uncertainty, yet give the Clients earlier warning of errors.
  7. Quantity Surveyors should produce Bills of Quantities as accurate as possible for the benefit of every party involved in the project.
  8. However, it should be cautioned that "accuracy" does not mean measuring quantities in unduly fine and tedious details without regard to the time required and the significance of the costs of the items involved. Accuracy must be judged against the costs of the items involved. Priority and emphasis should be given to cost significant items.

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Formats of Bills of Quantities 工程量清单的格式

Formats of Bills of Quantities 工程量清单的格式 KCTang Sun, 21/12/2014 - 01:00

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Note

21 Dec 2014: Moved form wiki.

Sections of Bills of Quantities
工程量清单分部

  1. Traditionally and typically, Bills of Quantities are divided into the following Bills:
    传统及典型的工程量清单分为下列的清单:
    • Bill No. 1 – Preliminaries 
      ​一号清单: 开办经营费用
    • Bill No. 2 - Preambles
      二号清单: 清单说明
    • Bill No. 3 - Substructure
      三号清单: 基础工程
    • Bill No. 4 - Superstructure
      四号清单:上盖工程
    • Bill No. 5 - Drainage
      五号清单: 地下排水工程
    • Bill No. 6 - External Works 
      六号清单: 外围工程
    • Bill No. 7 - Prime Cost and Provisional Sums 
      七号清单: 指定项目暂定价及暂定款
    • Bill No. 8 - Daywork Schedule
      八号清单: 点工费用
    • General Summary. 
      投标价汇总。
  2. The substructure and superstructure may be further varied as follows: 
    基础工程及上盖工程可变化如下:
    • Bill No. 1 - Preliminaries
      一号清单: 开办经营费用
    • Bill No. 2 - Preambles
      二号清单: 清单说明
    • Bill No. 3 - Basement
      三号清单: 地下室
    • Bill No. 4 - Podium
      四号清单: 裙房
    • Bill No. 5 - Tower 
      五号清单: 塔楼
    • Bill No. 6 - Drainage 
      六号清单: 地下排水
    • Bill No. 7 - External Works
      七号清单: 外围
    • Bill No. 8 - Prime Cost and Provisional Sums
      八号清单: 指定项目暂定价及暂定款
    • Bill No. 9 - Daywork Schedule
      九号清单: 点工费用
    • General Summary. 
      投标价汇总。

Measured Works Bills

  1. Bills No. 3 to 6 in the first example and Bills No. 3 to 7 in the second example are Measured Works Bills because the physical work are measured and presented in these Bills.
  2. Measured Works Bills are usually further divided into Trade Sections arranged according to the trade sequence in Standard Method of Measurement III or the work sections sequence in Standard Method of Measurement IV, e.g.
    • Excavator or Excavation
    • Concretor or Concrete Work
    • Bricklayer or Brickwork
    • etc.
  3. External Works Bill contains items involving all trades. Therefore, it is usual to arrange items in the External Works Bill according to the type of construction, e.g.
    • Site formation
    • Fence walls
    • Roads and paving
    • Planters
    • Guard house
    • etc.

Page layout of BQ pages

  1. Sample page layout of Measured Works Bill:
  2. Sample layout of Collection page:
  3. Sample layout of Summary page:
  4. Sample layout of General Summary page:

Page header and footer

  1. The positions of the project and contract titles and the company name or logo may be interchanged.
  2. With the popularity of computer use, it is preferred to have the filename shown to help identifying the computer file. The filename should be systematic and self-explanatory.

BQ columns

  1. Pages for Measured Works Bills have ruled columns like the following examples:
  2. Pages for Preliminaries, Collection and Summary pages do not have columns for quantity, unit and rate. The columns are as follows:
  3. The Qty, Unit, Rate and Amount columns should be wide enough to accommodate the texts and figures when typed in. The width of the Description column is more flexible.
  4. Bill No. 2 - Preambles do not have ruled columns because the items there are not supposed to be individually priced.
  5. Recent trend is to change the Preambles Bill to a Preambles Section without Bill No. Care however should be made to declare that the Preambles Section still form part of the Bills of Quantities. Alternatively, the Section should be called "Preambles to Bills of Quantities" to evident its status.
  6. Some of the Preliminaries clauses are lengthy and do not directly attract a price. Therefore, prices entered in the Preliminaries Bills are scattered through the pages.
  7. Recent trend is to move the Preliminaries clauses to the Specification and call it "Specification - Preliminaries". Bill No. 1 - Preliminaries then only contains the clause heading of the Specification - Preliminaries. The Specification - Preliminaries without column for pricing can use wider page width and this reduces the number of pages. Bill No. 1 - Preliminaries presents the prices in a more compact manner, and would be convenient and concise if the same Bill is used for subsequent payment valuation since the lengthy descriptions are left out.

Alphabetical item reference

  1. Traditionally, item references are given as A, B, C, D, E, etc. for items with units. The item references start from A again on every page unless the item continues from the last page.
  2. Headings are not referenced.
  3. When item A on page 3/1 is referred to, it is referred to as BQ item 3/1/A.
  4. Alphabetical reference system using A, B, C is easier to use since every page starts with a new sequence. When an item reference is incorrectly assigned, simply correct it and the subsequent item references on the same page. Subsequent pages would not be affected.
  5. However, if, after assigning the item references, items are inserted or deleted involving shifting of items over pages, alphabetical item references on more than one page would need to be re-assigned.
  6. This works fine before BQ are actually issued for tendering since the item references can be corrected at will. However, if, after issuing the BQ for tendering, insertion of items is required as tender amendments, then it would be undesirable to shift the positions of all subsequent items over the subsequent pages.
  7. If the BQ are typed by typewriters or by word processors, like in the old days, the effect might be reduced if some spaces have been reserved at the bottom of pages or if the font size and spacing are reduced to suit.
  8. However, with the popular use of spreadsheet, database, or BQ production software where the items are automatically tightly printed one after the other and the font sizes are standardized, insertion of items without disturbance to the positions or item references of subsequent items is impossible.
  9. Some people use a new page with the page number designated something like 3.2/1+1 or 3.2/1A to denote an additional page. By this method, the items on the subsequent pages can remain intact. The method requires the software used to produce BQ to be intelligent enough to deal with the additional page number, otherwise the page number will have to be assigned manually.

Numeric item reference

  1. An alternative to alphabetical reference is to use numeric reference in the form of 1, 1.1, 1.1.1 continuously through the same Trade Section. "3.2/" in the following sample is used to represent the Bill No. Headings are also referenced. When the first item is referred to, it is referred to as BQ item 3.2/1.1.1.
  2. Numeric reference system requires items over all pages to be consecutively referenced. Therefore greater care is required to ensure correctness. If a reference is incorrectly assigned, all subsequent references of the same level will need to be assigned again.
  3. If, after assigning the item references, items are inserted or deleted involving shifting of items over pages, the references of subsequent items of the same level would need to be assigned. For example, if item 3.2/1.3.3 is a newly inserted item, then only the original items from 3.2/1.3.3 onward would need to be re-assigned a reference. Of course, if Heading 3.2/1.3 is a newly inserted item, then all the original headings and items from 3.2/1.3 onward would need to be re-assigned a reference.
  4. The problem of shifting of items over pages or the need for additional pages as described for alphabetical reference system cannot be eliminated with numeric reference system. However, since numeric reference system does not use the page number as part of the complete reference. The page on which a particular item appears is less significant. This would be useful when exchanging BQ on computer files. The item references remain unchanged irrespective of the page width or depth. Numeric item references would also be convenient for data processing.

Item references according to the Standard Method of Measurement

  • Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement of the United Kingdom requires the item references to follow the references used in the SMM.

Descriptions

  1. There are two styles of writing descriptions. The traditional way is to write it in the natural style of the language, e.g. Concrete Grade 10/20 in 75 mm blinding layer. Such style can be extremely flexible.

  2. The other way is to build up the descriptions from small tokens, e.g. Concrete ; Grade 10/20 ; blinding layer ; 75 mm. Such tokenised description style is the result of the adoption of standard phraseology for BQ production by computer. Takers-off are presented with choices of tokens on the menus on computer screens to select for building up the complete description. Tokenised descriptions help enhance the uniformity of descriptions and help data-processing because the descriptions are structured. However, they are not natural to read and may sometimes be cumbersome for simple items. " ; " with a space before and after is usually used to separate tokens. This would have significance when sorting the descriptions by computer. " ; " beginning with a space will be sorted before "" without a space.

Extra over or extra for

  1. Extra over items are measured when additional work is required on part of a principal item and it would be tedious or artificial to split the principal items into two: one with the additional work and one without the additional work.
  2. The volume, area, length or number of these extra over items are included in the measurements of the quantities of the principal items in which they occur and the prices for these items are to be extra only over the prices of the items in which they occur. In other words, the quantities of the principal items would not be reduced by reason of the measurement of the extra over items.
  3. Examples of extra over items are:
    • Extra over excavation and disposal (measured Cube) for breaking up and removing paving, surface concrete and the like (measured Super or as an Item);
    • Extra over concrete in beams and slabs (measured Cube without deduction of the volume of the haunching) for a stronger grade of concrete in haunching at abutment with columns or walls (also measured Cube)
    • Extra over common brickwork (measured Super without deduction of the area with facings) for facings (also measured Super)
    • Extra over stone walling (measured Cube or Super without deduction of the volume or area with facings) for facings (measured Super)
    • Extra over roof tiling (measured Super without deduction of the area of the double courses) for double courses (measured Run)
    • Extra over wood block flooring (measured Super without deduction of the area of the border) for border (measured Run)
    • Extra over timber doors (measured Super without deduction of the area of louvred openings or enumerated) for forming louvred openings (enumerated)
    • Extra over tiling (measured Super without deduction of the area of special tiles) for tiles rounded on one or two edges or special tiles at angles or corners (measured Run or enumerated)
    • Extra over plumbing and drainage pipework (measured Run without deduction of the length occupied by fittings) for fittings like bend, tees, junctions, etc. (enumerated).
  4. The general pattern to write extra over items is: "Extra over principal item for additional work". However, if it is clear as to which are the principal items, the expression may be simplified to "Extra for additional work". Generally items using this simplified expression follow closely behind the principal items. The principal items may not necessarily be a single item but may be a group of items where the extra over work is the same. For example:
  5. Expressions like "Extra only over principal item for additional work" and "Extra over the last item for additional work" can also be used.
  6. Expressions like "Extra over for additional work" are not preferred.

Range

  • Where items are to be described in ranges, a short form is used, for example:
    • "0 - 0.10 m2 opening" means opening not exceeding 0.10 m2 in size
    • "1.50 - 3.00 m deep" means exceeding 1.50 m but not exceeding 3.00 m deep
    • "75 - 150 mm girth" means exceeding 75 mm but not exceeding 150 mm girth
    • "exceeding" means greater than
    • "not exceeding" means less than and equal to.

Ancillary items

  • The descriptions should be adequate to cover ancillary work or service which are not deemed to be included for in the unit rates by the Preambles.

Headings

  1. Headings are used for grouping of items of similar elements or constructions to simplify the length of descriptions. As a rule, if there are two or more consecutive items of very similar descriptions, they should be put under a heading. The heading should cover the repeating portions of the descriptions. Compare the following first four items written with or without headings:
  2. Notice that a short line precedes the last item above to signify that the heading to the preceding items no longer apply to this item.
  3. If there may be confusion as to the end of the application of headings, words like "(End of ALL PROVISIONAL) " may be used.
  4. It should be noted that the heading and the description can be read together as if they are one complete description. The word "to" is essential for this continuous reading.
  5. Some people omitted the word "to", the meaning would remain unchanged, but the continuous reading is interrupted.
  6. In cases where the heading and description cannot be read continuously, it is preferred to repeat the subject matter in the description. Compare the following examples:
  7. The first level of headings may be called Main Headings and the lower levels of headings may be called Sub-headings.
  8. Headings where applicable are repeated on the beginning of each page and finished with the word "(Cont’d) ".

Singular and plural

  • It is usual to write headings in plurals and write the principal subject of the descriptions in singular sense and the ancillary items in plurals. In the above examples, "Screeds" in the headings is a plural while "Screed" in the descriptions is singular. "Beam" in "sides and soffit of beam" is singular, while "sides" is a plural and "soffit" is singular to signify that for a typical beam, there are two sides and one soffit.

Punctuations

  1. Descriptions of measured items usually do not end with a full stop. Descriptions of Preliminaries, Preambles and note items are given full punctuation.
  2. Headings which are supposed to read continuously with the descriptions are traditionally ended with "" or ":- ". However, recent trend omits to use them.

Secondary quantities

  1. The Standard Method of Measurement may require that further information as to quantities be given in the descriptions. Such information may be given in the following manners:
  2. Some people call the secondary quantities in brackets a "trigger".

Sequence

  • Items in Bills of Quantities within the same Bill or Trade are to be sequenced according to the following rules:
    • According to sequence required by the Standard Method of Measurement such as the Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement of UK
    • In case of no specific requirements in the SMM, headings are given according to the sequence of construction
    • Items under the same headings are sequenced according to the units in the order of: Item, kg, m3, m2, m, No.
    • For the same units, items are sequenced from the cheapest to the most expensive.

Units

  1. The usual units of billing are:
    • kg - for items given by weight
    • m3 - for items given by volume
    • m2 - for items given by area
    • m - for items given by length
    • No. - for items given by number
    • Item - for items not given by quantities but to be priced as a lump sum price.
  2. An alternative way to say some of the above is:
    • m3 - for items given Cube
    • m2 - for items given Super
    • m - for items given Run or for linear items
    • No. - for enumerated items.
  3. Cube, Super, Run, No. were used with the imperial system of units. However, some people still use them for metric system since they are less prone to typing errors than m3, m2 and m.
  4. The following should be noted:
    • "kg" begins with "k" not "K"
    • "Item" is capitalized
    • "Super" can be abbreviated to "Sup. "
    • "Nr" or "Nr. " can be used instead of "No. "
    • "Pair" and "Set" may sometimes be used
    • "Manday" or "Hour" may be used for Dayworks items
    • "t" or "MT" may be used for metric tonne
    • "Note" may be used for note items.

Quantities

  1. Quantities should be given to the nearest whole units. In case a quantity is too small to be a whole unit, it should be given as one. Better still, the unit of measurement should be reviewed to see whether an alternative unit is more appropriate to reflect the smallness of the item, e.g. enumerated instead of given Cube.
  2. Extreme care should be exercised during tender analysis to ensure that an item of very small quantity would not be priced at excessively high rates in expectation for major increase in the quantities through variations.

Rate only items

  • If an item is to be a rate only item for obtaining rate only without quantity, the word "Rate Only" should be inserted in the quantity column against the item.

Rates and amounts

  • The column width of the Rate and Amount columns should be wide enough to allow for the figures to be given to two decimal places.

Extending the total

  • The Amount column is also called the "Extension" column. Multiplying the quantity and rate to give the amount and entering the amount is called extending the total.

Casting down the total

  • Totalling the extensions to arrive at the page total is called casting down the total.

Carried forward / brought forward

  1. Carrying the running total from one page over to the next page is usually signified by the words "Carried forward" at the bottom of the first page and the words "Brought forward" at the top of the second page against the left hand side of the figure carried, as follows:
  2. The words may be simplified to "C/F" and "B/F" without the figures as follows:

Carrying the total

  • Carrying the page total to the Collection page and to the Summary page is called carrying the total.

Style and consistency

  • There can be equally workable but different styles to present the format of and descriptions in Bills of Quantities. However, it is very important that within the same set of Bills of Quantities, the style and descriptions used must be consistent throughout. If the same kind of work appearing in different sections of the Bills of Quantities is given different descriptions, it may lead to claims. Consistent style will ease the reading and understanding of the Bills of Quantities and improve the quality of the Bills of Quantities.

Model bills and past BQ

  • Office Model or Standard Bills or BQ of past similar projects should be referred to for descriptions. They can also serve as useful check-list for any missing items.

The following are discussions regarding BQ format in Mainland China

项目名称

  1. 试看看下列例子的项目名称,是否很容易判断出它们的分别:
  2. 又试看看下列的例子,是否很容易判断出它们的分别:
  3. 后一个例子应该较易分辨不同项目的差别,而且较省纸张。
  4. 香港及外地的工程量清单习惯把工程项目名称分层表示,每一标题代表一个层次,整个项目名称乃综合几个标题及本项说明一并阅读理解。层次的多少视乎同类项目的多少及变化而定,通常为两至三个层次,若太多亦不太好。用英文时,通常第一层标题全部用大写,有底线;第二层标题就不用大写,用粗体,有底线;第三层有底线及会缩排。诸如此类的变化以分辨。中文字就没有大写,但可用字形、粗斜体、底线、缩排来分辨。例如:
  5. 如果同类的只有一个项目,旧式的方法是在项目之前加一条短线以表示这项目不是属于前一项目的标题所管辖。例如:
  6. 为了维持一致性,建议就算单一项目都有标题,例如:
  7. 上述例子还可以有变化,若柱高或梁高有较多的变化,可能需要将柱高梁高写在本项说明内。

文字的表示

  1. 文字说明,除分部名称外,应靠左,分部名称可置中。
  2. 下列的例子两个写法,意义都一样,左边的较口语化,右边的适用于电子计算软件自动排列顺序:

数字的表示

  1. 试看看下列的例子,那一个编排方法较易判断出个别数字的分别:
  2. 数量、单价及金额等涉及数字的栏目,应靠右,不要靠左或置中,并应有千位符号。
  3. 工程数量不表示小数,较为实际好用。

清单编号

  1. 单项、单位、分部工程量清单可使用相关的编号,例如1.2.3代表第1 单项、第2单位、第3分部。
  2. 香港通常用把每分部工程量清单编一个码。

序号

  1. 序号作为项目在清单的顺序可有不同的编排方法:
    • 整份清单一组序号,只适用于有较少项目的清单;
    • 每页內的項目独立序号,例如:A, B, C;
    • 分部或分组工程量清单独立序号,例如:
  2. 请注意上表加了清单编号及小计。

编页、分册及目录

  1. 清单编号及页码要有系统地编列。
  2. 过厚的文件应适当地分册。
  3. 应维持有内文页码的目录。

End of Page

Preparation upon Commencement of Production of Bills of Quantities 编写工程量清单前的准备

Preparation upon Commencement of Production of Bills of Quantities 编写工程量清单前的准备 KCTang Tue, 23/12/2014 - 18:39

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Note

28 Mar 2020: Punctuation standardised.

23 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

Forming a team 组建小组

  1. Each project should have a Project-in-charge.
    每一個项目都应有一個项目负责人
  2. The Project-in-charge should be, depending on the level of delegation of authority, a Director, Associate Director, Assistant Director, Partner or Associate of the QS firm.
    视乎获授权的程度,项目负责人应为工料測量师事务所的董事、副董事、助理董事、合伙人或副合伙人
  3. The Project-in-charge should: 
    项目负责人应:
    • estimate the human resources and time required
      估计所需人手及时间
    • appoint team members
      指派人选
    • appoint a team leader.
      选定组长
  4. The team leader should: 
    组长应:
    • be an experienced surveyor
      为一个有经验的測量师
    • liaise with the Client and the Designers
      与发包方及设计方保持联系
    • understand the requirements of the Works
      了解工程要求
    • understand the time arrangement
      了解时间安排
    • obtain the drawings.
      取得图纸
  5. The other team members should be surveyors or assistant surveyors of suitable grades.
    组员应为适当级别的測量师或測量技术员

Briefing meeting 交底会

  1. A briefing meeting should be held when the major drawings are sufficient enough to enable production work to commence.
    主要图纸齐备,可以开工,便要举行交底会
  2. The meeting should be chaired by the Project-in-charge.
    应由项目负责人主持交底会
  3. The appointed team members should attend.
    选定的编标小组成员应叁加
  4. To discuss and clarify the following matters:
    讨论及明确下列事情:
    • Scope of measurement
      计算的范围
    • Method of measurement and Preambles
      工程量计算规则及清单说明
    • Bills and trades classification
      分部清单的划分
    • Drawings and Specification
      图纸及规范
    • Staff allocation
      人手分配
    • BQ production programme.
      编标计划进度表
  5. People who join the team later may be briefed by the team leader.
    较后加入的组员,可由组长指导

Scope of measurement
计算的范围

  1. The scope of measurement required for the Bills of Quantities should be clarified: 
    应明确工程量清单所需计算的范围:
    • Extent of previous contracts, such as piling contract, site formation contract
      已完成工程的范围,例如打桩、场地平整等
    • Items to be covered by prime cost rates
      采用暂定单价的项目
    • Items to be covered by prime cost sums to be supplied by Nominated Suppliers or carried out by Nominated Sub-Contractors
      由指定供货商供应的物料及指定分包方负责执行的工程
    • Goods to be supplied by the Employer
      由发包方供应的物料
    • Items to be carried out by others, such as landlords, tenants, Government Authorities, Public Utility Companies, etc.
      由其他人负责执行的工程,例如大业主、租户、政府机关、市政单位、等
    • Items to be measured provisional because of insufficient drawings, e.g. reinforcement.
      因图纸不全要以暂定工程量代表的项目,例如钢筋

Method of measurement and Preambles
工程量计算规则及清单说明

  1. Identify which version to be used of: 
    确定采用那套:
    • Standard Method of Measurement
      标准的工程量计算规则
    • Standard Office Preambles.
      公司的标准清单说明
  2. Discuss and identify any deviations from the SMM to suit the special nature of the project.
    讨论及确定为适应本项目特性而要与标准的工程量计算规则的偏离
  3. The deviations may be standard within the office or may be specially devised for the project.
    偏离可能是公司的标准或是为本项目特定的
  4. The Standard Office Preambles should be referred to for the standard deviations.
    公司的标准偏离可参考公司的标准清单说明
  5. Special deviations should be written into the Standard Office Preambles to form the Project Preambles.
    为本项目特定的偏离应写进公司的标准清单说明内,变为本项目的清单说明
  6. Special deviations may also be found necessary during the course of BQ production.
    偏标过程中也可能发觉需要特殊的变离

Bills and trades classification
分部清单的划分

  1. How the Works to be measured are to be divided into Bills and Trades should be discussed and clarified, e.g.:
    确定如何划分,例如:
    • by buildings and parts of a building, e.g. Substructure or Basement, Podium, Tower 1, Tower 2, Drainage, External Works
      按楼房及其分部,例如基础或地下室、群楼、1号塔楼、2号塔楼、地下排水、外围
    • then by work sections, e.g. piling, excavation, concrete work, blockwork, finishes, plumbing.
      按工程分部,例如打桩、混凝土、砌体、装饰、地上给排水
  2. For projects where various cost centres are used, the Bills may be divided accordingly for cost control purposes.
    需要划分不同的成本核算中心的项目,清单可能亦需要相应划分,以便成本控制
  3. For projects which break down the Works into activities for programme and cost control purposes, the Bills may be divided into activities.
    需要把工程按工序划分以便控制进度和成本的项目,清单可能需要按工序划分
  4. The divisions should facilitate: 
    应利于:
    • bulk-checking
      复核
    • payment valuations using simple percentages based on visual progress
      按形象进度打简单比例计算进度款
    • cost monitoring and control, such as by cost centres
      造价跟踪及控制,例如成本核算中心
    • cost analysis.
      造价指标含量分析
  5. If all quantities of the Works are lumped together without suitable divisions: 
    若没有适当的划分:
    • the use of Bills of Quantities will be greatly diminished.
      工程量清单的用处大大减少

Nomenclatures
用词

  1. "Substructure" generally includes all work up to the structural top levels of the lowest floor slabs, but excludes floor finishes thereon.
    "基础" 一般包含最底层地板结构面标高以下的所有工作,但不包括该地板面饰面
  2. "Superstructure" generally includes all works above the structural top levels of the lowest floor slabs, and includes floor finishes thereon.
    "上盖结构" 一般包含最底层地板结构面标高以上的所有工作,包括该地板面饰面
  3. "Lowest floor slabs" means the lowest floor slab at a particular location: 
    "最底层地板" 意指在某位置的最底层地板:
    • Ground floor slabs will generally be the lowest floor slabs in the absence of a basement
      一般来说,若没有地下室,首层地板便是最底层地板
    • The bottom slab of basement will be the lowest floor slab
      地下室的底板便是最底层地板
    • The lowest floor slabs may not necessarily be of the same level; they may have different levels
      最底层地板的标高不一定是完全一样,它们可能有不同的标高
    • Walls and columns between two adjacent lowest floor slabs at different levels should be regarded as part of the Substructure while the walls and columns above the higher of the two lowest floor slabs should be regarded as part of the Superstructure.
      相连但标高不同的两块最底层地板之间的墙及柱应归入基础,而高于该两块底层地板的墙及柱应归入上盖结构
  4. "Basement" generally includes all works above the Substructure up to the structural top levels of basement top slabs, and includes all architectural works inside the basement. 
    "地下室" 一般包含基础之上到地下室顶板面标高的所有工作,包括地下室内的建筑工作
  5. "Podium" generally includes all works above the Substructure or Basement up to the structural top level of the podium roof, and includes all architectural works inside the podium and all external wall finishes, roofing, landscaping, parapets and minor structures on the podium roof, but excludes the floor finishes within the footprint of the tower blocks.
    "群房" 一般包含基础或地下室之上到群房顶板结构面标高的所有工作,包括群房内的建筑工作、外墙饰面、屋面层、屋面的绿化、女儿墙及小型构筑物
  6. "Tower" generally includes all works of the tower blocks above the Podium and includes the floor finishes within the footprint of the tower blocks.
    "塔楼" 一般包含群楼之上塔楼的所有工作,包括塔楼脚印以内的楼面饰面
  7. Reinforcement starter bars are generally included in the sections from which they project.
    钢筋的插筋一般归入它们预埋的部位
  8. According to the Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works, the "Plumber" or "Plumbing" trade includes all water supply, rainwater, soil and waste disposal work above ground, while the "Drainlayer" or "Drainage" trade includes all surface water drainage, stormwater and soil and waste drainage underground. Engineers usually call rainwater, soil and waste disposal works above ground as "drainage" as well. To distinguish, the terms "Above-ground drainage" and "Underground drainage" are used. In Bills of Quantities, the Plumber trade is usually given separately under the Basement, Podium and Tower Bills. Since the Drainlayer trade is common to the buildings, it is usual to put it as a separate bill as the Drainage Bill for the underground drainage. Independent surface water channels are usually billed under the Drainage Bill. Surface water channels formed in concrete slabs or roads and paving are usually billed with the concrete slabs or roads and paving as extra over items.
    跟据标准的工程量计算规则, "水管工程"这工种在英语包含地上的给水、排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作,而"渠务工程" 这工种包含地面排水、地下的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作。工程师通常把地上的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作亦称为地下的排雨水、排污水、排废水的工作
  9. "Plumbing" according to the Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works includes all water supply, rainwater, soil and waste disposal works above ground.
  10. "External Works" include all works outside the buildings, and may include works outside the site. If the footprint of the basement is larger than the podium, the additional covering on top of the basement top slabs will usually be grouped under the External Works.

Drawings and Specification
图纸及规范

  1. The Drawings and Specification from which the Bills of Quantities are to be measured should be obtained. It is very usual that they are not always provided in full upon commencement of taking-off.
  2. 检查图纸及规范的质量
  3. 商议未齐备图纸的提供时间

Staff allocation
人手分配

  1. The overall time allowed for the production of the BQ should be clarified. The time when the Drawings and Specification will be provided by the Architects and Engineers should be noted.
    明确出标日期
    讨论交接安排
    讨论要多少人
    讨论预定工时
  2. Within the allowable time frame, the number of working days or hours to complete the BQ production should be estimated so that the size of the team can be established.
  3. The Works are generally divided into the following groups for measurement by separate people: 
    讨论如何分工:
    • Excavation and structure including reinforcement
      土方及结构
    • Internal, external and roof finishes
      内外装饰
    • Non-structural walls and partitions
      隔断
    • Fittings and sundries
      家具装置
    • Plumbing and drainage
      给排水
    • Fire services
      消防
    • Electrical installation
      电气
    • Air-conditioning installation
      空调
    • External Works.
      室外总体
  4. The first two items above will be the most time consuming, and should be started as early as possible. For bigger projects, each of these items may be shared by more than one Surveyor.
  5. Non-structural walls and partitions should preferably be measured by the same Surveyor measuring finishes because of his familiarity with the layout and dimensions.
  6. More experienced Surveyors should handle fittings and external works.
  7. A team of 4 Surveyors should be the normal team size for a multi-storey single block of building.
  8. Housing estates with huge podium and extensive external works may need 8 to 10 Surveyors.

BQ production programme
编标计划进度表

  1. Having established the team size, a BQ production programme should be drawn up either in bar chart or in a table form to show the allocation of work amongst the team members and the time frame allowed.
    按交底会讨论画出
  2. The programme should indicate the times allowed for taking-off and other activities after taking-off such as editing, bulk-checking, correction and printing.
    表示个人计量时间外
    还要预留编辑、复核、更正、打印、复印的时间
  3. Critical dates for receipt of outstanding information should also be shown.
    表示关键的取图纸、出标日期
  4. The programme should be reviewed regularly against the actual progress to identify any slippage and remedial actions taken to cope.
    定期检讨进度,追索资料,调动人手
  • Sample Format 格式例:

End of Page

Preambles 清单说明

Preambles 清单说明 KCTang Tue, 23/12/2014 - 19:39

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Note

23 Dec 2014

Functions of Preambles

  1. The Preambles Bill or Section describes general information and rules which are common to and applicable to the Measured Work Bills
  2. The Preambles Bill or Section generally describes:
    • Definitions and terminology
    • Special method of measurement deviating from the Standard Method of Measurement
    • Rates to include items which describe work or costs to be included in the unit rates
  3. Additional Preambles clauses to give further information as required by the Standard Method of Measurement or as required for the Works are usually given in the Measured Work Bills preceding the relevant measured items

Special method of measurement

  1. In principle, the rules of the Standard Method of Measurement should be strictly followed. However, in case special deviations or clarifications are required, Preambles clauses should be included to state the special method of measurement
  2. When writing the special method of measurement, it is preferred that the clauses of the Standard Method of Measurement from which deviations are to be made should be specifically stated in this manner: "Notwithstanding clause xxx of Section YYY of the Standard Method of Measurement, ZZZ has been measured ….. "

Rates to include items

  1. The Standard Method of Measurement requires that certain clauses be given in the Preambles to describe the scope of work or costs to be included in the unit rates
  2. Apart from these mandatory Preambles clauses, there may be special Preambles clauses which are necessary to amplify the descriptions in the Measured Work Bills
  3. All these Preambles clauses defining the scope of unit rates are called "Rates to include items" or the scope is called "Item coverage"
  4. The Preambles clauses are usually written in the style of: "The rates for <work> shall include for <item coverage>"
  5. The following are alternatives to "shall include for":
    • shall be deemed to include for
    • shall be held to include for
    • are deemed to include for
    • are held to include for

Using Preambles

  1. The Standard Office Preambles should be used as the base for drafting the Preambles for a particular project
  2. Preambles for other projects may be referred to for any special clauses. However, it would be dangerous to use another Project Preambles as the base for drafting for a new project since the deletions from or additions to the Standard Office Preambles specific for the old project may not be applicable to the new project and fine changes may easily miss the reader’s attention
  3. Amendments to Office Standard Preambles for a particular project must be subject to strict control. Any special Preambles clauses considered necessary during the course of BQ production should be discussed and clarified with the Supervisor-in-charge, above the level of team leader
  4. Similar to the Specification, the Preambles should be lined through

形式

  1. 清单说明或称"清单序言"
  2. 以2号清单或独立文件列出
  3. 本身不套单价

清单说明的功能

  1. 为计量分部清单的常用词定义
  2. 说明适用于计量分部清单的规定
    • 特殊的,与某计量分部清单较密切的,可在该分部清单开始处说明
  3. 说明与标准工程量计算规则有偏离的地方
    • 标准工程量计算规则有些地方或不太适用于本工程的情况,应适当地偏离
  4. 说明单价包含的内容
    • 按标准工程量计算规则的规定要予以特别说明的单价包含内容

编写清单说明

  1. 应使用公司的标准作为修改的蓝本
  2. 再比对其他同类工程看看有没有适用的特殊修订
  3. 跟清单说明一样,要画线清理

End of Page

Measurement and Billing

Measurement and Billing KCTang Sat, 27/07/2019 - 09:37

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Note

23 Mar 2020: Page on query list merged into here.

27 Jul 2019: Partly split to different pages.

23 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

Processes 程序

  1. The traditional manual processes of measurement and billing are:

    • Take-off (measure dimensions)

    • Square (calculate products and sums)

    • Transfer (carry forward quantities)

    • Abstract (summarize)

    • Bill (describe and list)

    • Transfer (bring forward quantities).

  2. Concurrent with the measurement and billing, query lists should be issued.
  3. After the transferring process, there are the following processes:
    • Edit (the written draft BQ)
    • Type
    • Read over
    • Clear Drawings, Specification and Preambles
    • Bulk check
    • Adjust
    • Edit finally
    • Correct finally
    • Read quantities
    • Photocopy
    • Check pages
    • Bind
    • Pre-tender Estimate
    • Issue Tender Addendum.
  4. With the use of BQ production software, squaring, transferring, abstracting and billing can be combined by linking the dimensions with the final BQ items.
  5. The dimension by dimension taking off may be replaced with CAD or BIM measurement.

  6. However, the processes still exist implicitly though taking a different form.

Taking-off 度數/計量

  1. The process of measuring the quantities of items of work is called "taking-off" or "quantity-take-off" or "QTO" whereby the dimensions of the items of work are (traditionally) written down on a dimension sheet.

  2. Person(s) taking-off are called "Taker(s)-off".

Long hand manual dimension sheets (school arithmetic)長式手工計算紙

  1. Calculations may be set out in the usual arithmetical form:
    計算可如一般的算式列出:

     

     

  2. This uses less paper, but is difficult to trace, compare and inspect for errors.
    這樣非常省紙,但難於對比和檢查錯誤。

Traditional manual dimension sheets

  1. Traditional dimension sheets used to take-off quantities take the following form (as seen in textbooks):
  2. Dimensions are set in vertical stack, in the order of length, width and breadth.
  3. A line is used to separate each set of dimensions.
  4. Timesings are written on the left column.
  5. In this column, "/" means multiply, not divide.
  6. ". " means add, an action called "dotted on".
  7. The products are given in the right column.
  8. The descriptions are very much abbreviated to reduce writing.
  9. The calculation in the description column is the build-up of one of the dimensions.
  10. It is called a "waste calculation" or "side-cast".
  11. The annotations "bm B1", "bm B2" in the description column are to identify the locations of sets of dimensions.
  12. This action is called "sign-posting".

Another kind of manual dimension sheets

  1. Another kind of dimension sheets is to lay out the dimensions horizontally as follows:
  2. The products of dimensions are not written one by one.
  3. Only the total of the products is entered at the bottom.
  4. This is made feasible with the popular use of electronic calculators with memory function.
  5. It would be faster to calculate once more than write down all the products before summing up.
  6. Laying out the dimensions horizontally actually improve the presentation and make comparison of dimensions easier.
  7. Deductions are indicated by putting brackets to enclose the set of dimensions, and write them in red:
  8. The right hand columns can be utilized as rate and extension columns for final account purposes.

Manual taking-off schedules 計算表

  1. Dimension sheets require descriptions against group of dimensions.
  2. To reduce writing descriptions, dimensions of all quantities of the same item should be measured in one go and this requires greater experience.
  3. For measurement of group of items which have a lot of inter-related dimensions, use of dimension sheets would be cumbersome.
  4. A taking-off schedule would be preferred.
  5. The schedule sets out inter-related dimensions and items in a systematic manner.
  6. This reduces the need to repeat descriptions.
  7. This enables measurement of more than one items at the same time.
  8. This makes comparison and identification of errors easier.
  9. The following schedule for the same dimensions above measures concrete and formwork at the same time sharing the same set of dimensions:
    下列的計算表,把共用原始尺寸的項目並列一起計算,較容易看到互相的關係:

     

  10. ​The following schedule puts all finishes items sharing the same primary dimensions together and enables easier understanding of their inter-relationship:
  11. "/" = Times.
  12. () = Deduct.
    扣減
  13. Deductions are written in red or, if black and white photocopying is anticipated, marked with a minus sign or with brackets.
  14. The number of columns for each set of dimensions is flexible.
  15. For items measured Cube, four columns are allocated.
    欄數可加減,立方項用4欄。
  16. Since the width of a sheet of paper is limited, a column needs to be shared by more than one item, e.g. two types of floor finishes, and colouring of the boxes is used to distinguish dimensions of different items.
    因紙寬有限,可用顏色在同一組欄下表示不同的專案,加總時按顏色分開加。

Squaring 運算

  1. The process of calculating the products of dimensions and totals on dimension sheets and taking-off schedules is called squaring.
  2. The person is called a "Squarer" or "Comptometer".
  3. To ensure correctness, each calculated total entered by a Squarer must be counter-checked and initialled by another Squarer.
  4. Squaring is a tedious process even with the help of electronic calculators before the use of computer spreadsheets or BQ production software.
  5. 計算紙或計算表列式後要運算。
  6. 用普通計算器及人手計算的要另外有人覆核並簽署。
  7. 用電子計算器及軟體計算的,要建立覆核公式覆核。

Abstracting 匯總

  1. Dimension sheets or taking-off schedules measure more than one item on the same sheet or schedule.
  2. The same BQ item may appear on more than one sheet or schedule.
  3. Therefore, it is necessary to collate the individual quantities of the same BQ item appearing on more than one sheet or schedule together to arrive at the grand total of the item.
  4. A summary schedule is used to bring together the individual quantities to add up the grand total.
  5. The process of transferring the individual quantities from dimension sheets or taking-off schedules to the summary schedule is called "abstracting".
  6. 計算紙或計算表運算後要匯總。
  7. 工程量清單某分項數量可能要由幾張計算紙或計算表得出,所以要匯總。

Billing 列單

  1. The items in the summary schedule are then transferred to the draft BQ pages in the correct sequence with the descriptions expanded in full without abbreviations.
  2. This process is called "billing" and requires experienced Surveyors to do.
  3. The whole process from squaring to billing is called "working up".

Transferring 轉移

  1. Information is transferred from the dimension sheets or taking-off schedules to the summary schedule to the draft BQ.
  2. Every transfer of descriptions, units and quantities has to be counter-checked by another Surveyor.
  3. The actions are called "transferring" and "transfer-checking" or "to check transfer".
  4. 從計算紙或計算表轉移到匯總卡後要他人覆核簽署。
  5. 從那裡來往、往那裡去,都要寫。

Cut and shuffle 洗牌式

  1. Abstracting and working up are tedious processes involving a lot of transferring and transfer checking.
  2. More movements of information from one to another will increase the chances of making errors
  3. A method has been devised whereby:
    • each dimension sheet only contains one item
    • when the taking-off is finished, dimension sheets of the same BQ item are collated and stapled together
    • if taking-off schedules are used, the totals are transferred to the respective dimension sheets
    • squaring is done to obtain the grand total which is written on the front dimension sheet
    • short descriptions are expanded to full descriptions on the front dimension sheets
    • the dimension sheets are then shuffled according to the intended BQ sequence
    • headings are added as appropriate
    • BQ is directly typed from the dimension sheets which have headings, descriptions, unit and total quantities.
  4. The number of processes is greatly reduced.
  5. A drawback of this system is that when the dimension sheets are shuffled, the original sequence and logic of measurement are lost.
  6. Therefore, when the system was originally invented, the dimension sheets came together in 4 on one sheet of paper and were backed with a self impressed carbon copy.
  7. After taking-off in a logical sequence, the front sheet (A4 size) was taken out and cut into 4 vertical pieces or 2 horizontal pieces which were shuffled and sorted with other sheets.
  8. The carbon copy was kept in the original sequence to facilitate future reference.
  9. 每一個工程量清單分項都有一張卡,可以A4紙分為二或四。
  10. 每卡都寫上工程量清單分項的工程合同名稱、卡號、清單號、分項說明、單位、計算紙或計算表編號、搬來數量、匯總數量。
  11. 格式例:
  12. 匯總卡可按清單分項次序自由排序。
  13. 排序後要運算每卡總數,寫在上部。
  14. 總數由他人覆核。

Using Excel

  1. Electronic spreadsheet software like Excel can be used as dimension sheets or taking-off schedules.
  2. However, using electronic spreadsheets to imitate dimension sheets would require the defining of many calculation formulae.
  3. If the formulae cannot be consistently defined to enable copy-and-paste repeatedly, the defining process will be tedious and prone to errors.
  4. Using electronic spreadsheets to imitate taking-off schedules is more suitable.
  5. However, taking-off schedules when put into an Excel worksheet will become too wide to view on screen.
  6. It is suggested to set out the dimensions using less columns in the following manner:|
  7. Instead of adding columns for different items of work, codes are used to represent items row by row.
  8. Note that Columns B and I and Rows 4, 16, 18, 24 and 26 have been reduced to narrow widths and heights respectively.
  9. They will be used as the boundaries of ranges of columns or rows used in formulae such that any insertion of columns or rows within the boundaries would not go outside the defined ranges unexpectedly.
  10. The PRODUCT(range) function has been used in the following tables to calculate the Qty.
  11. Note that the range is from the narrow Column B to Column I.
  12. Within the defined range, empty cells are regarded as having value 1.
  13. “$” is used to anchor the columns in case the Qty column is copied to some other places without the intention to change the referred columns.
  14. The SUM(range) function has been used in the following table to calculate the total.
  15. Note that the range is from the narrow Row 4 to Row 16.
  16. The SUMIF(range to check, criteria, range to sum if criteria matched) function has been used in the following table to calculate the total qty per code.
  17. In the above table, if a cell value in the range to check is equal to the criteria, e.g. a cell value in the range to check “J$4:J$16” matches the value of cell J20, then the cell value on the same row in “K$4:K$16” will be added to the sum.
  18. “$” has been used to anchor the rows such that when the formula is copied down to other rows, the defined range will not change as shown in the following table:
  19. Column J may need to be anchored as well if the same formula is copied sideway to other columns.
  20. To ensure that the sum of all sub-totals equal to the grand total, another check total should be calculated.
  21. Note that in the following table, the upper boundary of the range to sum is Row 19 the heading row instead of Row 18 the narrow row.
  22. This serves the same purposes of bounding the ranges.
  23. An advantage is that Rows 19 to 25 can be moved to elsewhere independent of Row 18.
  24. It is important that insertion must be by rows or columns not by cells, and copying and pasting of cell values to other places are preferred to cutting and pasting, to avoid corrupting the formulae.
  25. Formulae must be refreshed by copying the correct ones to the other corresponding cells.
  26. There must always be a double-check of the totals using alternative method or formula to ensure no omission or duplication. 

Paper based table

  1. When doing quick measurement without using Excel, users may use coloured rows to highlight rows to be added using manual calculator to obtain the total.
  2. Individual qty per row may be skipped to save time.
  3. It is important to calculate the totals twice to ensure no error.

Direct billing

  1. With substantial portion of taking-off information given in taking-off schedules in tabulated and inter-related manner, the portion of taking-off directly on dimension sheets is greatly reduced.
  2. The need for carbon copy to keep the original taking-off sequence and logic is also reduced.
  3. "Cut" is also no longer required, one independent sheet can be used for one BQ item, leaving the "shuffle" behind.
  4. Taking-off directly onto these dimension sheets which can be shuffled immediately for billing is called "direct billing".

Query list
编标问卷

  1. During the course of BQ production, there is bound to be uncertainty of information either in respect of the project particulars or in respect of the Drawings and Specification.
    编制工程量清单时,常会碰到工程细节、图纸或工料规范有不清楚的地方
  2. Clarify with the Architects or Engineers using telephone conversation or email.
    先以电话或电邮询问设计单位
  3. Write down the answers obtained on a query list.
    用编标问卷书面记录答案
  4. Make reasonable and confident assumptions on the query list prior to receipt of answers.
    未有答案前,可把有信心的合理假设写在问卷上
  5. Refer to the following sample form: 
    参考以下格式例:
  6. To avoid grammatical mistakes and to reduce the subsequent time to make corrections, write the queries in note form which is still understandable, particularly when assumptions or answers have been made such that a query and assumption or answer can be read together to make sensible and complete meaning.
  7. Dispatch the query list from time to time to the Architects or Engineers for answering outstanding queries or confirming answered queries and for record.
    定期发出问卷以便取得未有的答案或确定已有的答案及做为记录
  8. Chase for the return of the query list with answers within a reasonable time.
    跟进在合理时间之内有回复
  9. Reflect the final answers in the Bills of Quantities.
    把最后的答案在工程量清单反映

End of Page

Taking-off Techniques

Taking-off Techniques KCTang Mon, 23/03/2020 - 18:02

Go to End

Note

23 Mar 2020: Numeric numbering system adopted. Punctuation standardised.

27 Jul 2019: Created.

Mode of taking-off
計量的手法

  1. Measure in a logical manner, for example, follow the construction sequence or alternative logical sequence.
    應按有系統的次序計算,例如按施工順序或主客關係
  2. Measure consistently from one direction to the other direction.
    一致從一方算至另一方
  3. Set out dimensions in a consistent manner of length, width and breadth.
    將尺寸按長闊高的須序輸入
  4. Avoid breaking down irregular shapes into small pieces and then adding up.
    避免把不規則的形狀分拆得太細來計算然後加總
  5. Measure overall first and making adjustments.
    應計最大框,然後扣減調整
  6. Measure related items in composite manner, e.g. tile and screed, plaster and paint, all layers of roof covering.
    以組合式的方法把關連項一起計,編清單時才分項,例如塊料面層和找平、屋面層

Measure perimeters

  1. When measuring the perimeter of the shape bounded below:
  2. Instead of measuring as:
    • 8 + 6 + 4 + 9 + 6 + 3 + 2 + 12
      = 50
  3. Measure as:
    • (12 + 3 + 8 + 2) x 2
      = 50
  4. That is, measure the overall dimensions:
    • (15 + 10) x 2
      = 50
  5. It can be observed that the perimeters of the following shapes are all the same as:
    • (15 + 10) x 2
      = 50
      
  6. No adjustment is required for rebates.
  7. Only when there are recesses that adjustments are required, such as:
    • (15 + 10) x 2 + 2 x A + 2 x B
      = 50
      

Adjust from outer to inner perimeter

  1. For the following diagram:
  2. External perimeter:
    • = (L + W) x 2
  3. Internal perimeter:

    • = (L + W) x 2 – T x 8
      i.e. 2 T per external corner
  4. Center line perimeter:

    • = (L + W) x 2 – T x 4
      i.e. 1 T per external corner
  5. The outer, inner and centre line perimeters are of the same lengths below. An external corner offsets an internal corner:
  6. For the following diagram, offsetting each pair of external corner and internal corner will result in leaving only 4 external corners for adjustment:

Measure areas

  1. When measuring the area bounded below:
  2. Instead of measuring as:
    • 6 x 10 + 9 x 6
      = 60 + 54
      = 114
  3. Measure as:
    • 15 x 10 - 9 x 4
      = 150 - 36
      = 114
  4. When measuring the area bounded below:
  5. Instead of measuring as:
    • (10 – 2) x 6 + (9 – 6) x (10 - 2 – 4) + (15 – 9) x 6
      = 48 + 12 + 36
      = 96
      
  6. Measure as:
    • 15 x 10 - 9 x 2 - 9 x 4
      = 150 - 18 - 36
      = 96
      
  7. Instead of cutting an irregular area into pieces to measure, it is better to measure the overall area first and make deductions, because:
    • Cutting into too many pieces may make finding the dimensions of each piece difficult, like the case of (9 – 6) x (10 - 2 – 4)
    • It may be easy to miss one or two pieces
    • Measuring the overall area first will ensure that the areas will not be under-measured.

Measure overall

  1. From the above, it can be seen that using the overall dimensions to measure the overall area and overall perimeter first and then make adjustments for rebates and recesses will be more convenient:
  2. Area:
    • = 15 x 10 – 12 x 2 – 9 x 4 – 3 x 2 – 3 x 2
      = 78 
  3. Perimeter:
    • = (15 + 10) x 2 + 2 x 2 + 2 x 2
      = 58

Image a cube with 6 faces

  1. For a room of the following plan shape:
  2. The room has 6 faces: floor, ceiling, and 4 walls.
  3. Floor area = ceiling area:
    • = plan area
      = L x W
  4. 4 wall areas:
    • = perimeter x (room height – skirting height)
      = (L + W) x 2 x (H – s)
      
  5. Skirting length:
    • = perimeter
      = (L + W) x 2
  6. When adding objects to a room, always imagine it as a cube with 6 faces, and check the effect of its 6 faces on the room finishes.

Adjust for columns

  1. For a room of the following plan layout:
  2. A is a column with same finishes as wall:
    • Top and base: deduct floor finishes: deduct ceiling finishes = same area
    • 2 exposed sides: offsetting 2 hidden sides = no effect on wall finishes area or skirting length.
  3. B is a column with same finishes as wall:
    • Top and base: deduct floor finishes: deduct ceiling finishes = same area
    • Front and back: offsetting = no effect on wall finishes area or skirting length
    • 2 sides: add wall finishes area and skirting length.
  4. C is a column with same finishes as wall:
    • Top and base: deduct floor finishes: deduct ceiling finishes = same area
    • 4 sides: add wall finishes area and skirting length.

Adjust for beams

  1. For a room with the following ceiling section:
  2. A is a beam with same finishes as ceiling:
    • Top and soffit: offsetting = no effect on ceiling finishes
    • Front and back: deduct wall finishes : add ceiling finishes = same area
    • 2 ends: deduct wall finishes.
  3. B is a beam with same finishes as wall:
    • Top and soffit: deduct ceiling finishes: add wall finishes = same area
    • Front and back: offsetting = no effect on wall finishes
    • 2 ends: deduct wall finishes.
  4. C is a beam with same finishes as ceiling:
    • Top and soffit: offsetting = no effect on ceiling finishes
    • 2 sides: add ceiling finishes
    • 2 ends: deduct wall finishes.

Adjust for windows and doors

  1. The idea of checking the 6 faces of an object when inserting into a room can also be applied to windows and doors.

  2. Windows:
    • Deduct window opening

    • Add head, cill, and 2 reveals.

  3. Doors:

    • Deduct door opening

    • Add head, floor, and 2 jambs.

Measure room finishes

  1. Measure surfaces of a room (same concept of measuring overall first then making adjustments can be applied to external elevations and roof finishes):
  2. Adjust for recesses:
  3. Adjust for columns:
  4. Adjust for beams:
  5. For a room with false ceiling, the wall finishes will stop at about 50 mm to 100 mm above the edge of false ceiling, depending on the design.
  6. The ceiling voids are usually not finished except for open grid false ceiling.
  7. Adjust for windows with fins:
  8. Adjust for bay windows:
  9. Adjust for doors:

Measure staircase well and staircases

  1. Names:
  2. For a staircase of the following plan and section:
  3. It is better to measure the stairwell first and then adjust for the landings and stairs.
  4. Cut a segment of constant plan size with two horizontal planes in case of varying stairwell plan sizes.
  5. Extra for items described above means that the items have been measured without deducting the background / principal items in which they occur.
  6. "Extra for skirting" should mean "Extra over wall finishes for skirting".
  7. When billing the quantities in the Pricing Schedules, the wall finishes displaced by the skirting should be deducted.
  8. Getting the total extra over quantity first and then make deductions later will be quicker than doing the deduction whenever the extra over item is measured.
  9. For example, total wall finishes to be deducted = total skirting length x skirting height.
  10. It may also be possible in some cases to bill simply as an extra over item without making deduction of background quantities.
  11. The deduction is to be considered in the unit rate.
  12. The full phrase of extra over items should be in the form of “Extra over X for Y”.
  13. “Extra for Y” should only be used if X is understood from the context.
  14. Usually item Y will follow item X immediately in the Pricing Schedule.
  15. “Extra over for Y” is not a good phrase.

Measure carpark ceilings

  1. When measuring carpark ceiling and beam finishes without exact beam dimensions, the areas may be estimated by measuring the ceiling and beam surface areas within a representative zone of ceiling to obtain the (area of finishes) : (area on plan) ratio, and use the ratio to multiply the carpark ceiling plan area.

Measure external elevations

  1. There can be three approaches to measuring the area of the external wall finishes:

    • (Overall external perimeter of building using the method as described in “Measuring perimeters”) x (height of elevation from base to top of roof parapet or curb), if all floors are of the same plan shape

    • Sum of (overall external perimeter of a floor x floor height x relevant number of floors) of all floors, and similar for roof parapets and curbs
    • Sum of (length of a particular elevation x height of that elevation) going around the building a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction, if the building elevations are rather complicated and require different finishes.
  2. For the top and inner face of roof parapets and curbs, measure the centre line perimeter and the inner perimeter using the method as described in “Adjusting from outer to inner perimeter”.
  3. Adjust for windows, balconies, doors, fins, window surrounds, canopies, openings, etc. paying attention to turn-ins at openings.
  4. Measure horizontal and vertical movement joints at specified locations.

Measure scaffolding

  1. While scaffolding is usually priced as a lump sum in the Preliminaries, the lump sum is still estimated based on the area of the scaffolding.
  2. The area of scaffolding is calculated based on the (perimeter of the outer face of scaffolding grid) x (height of scaffolding grid from base support of scaffolding to top of scaffolding grid) ignoring projection of individual scaffold members beyond the grid.
  3. For double-row scaffolding, the outer face is about 600 mm from the building face.
  4. Its perimeter will be bigger than the building’s external perimeter, except at lightwells:
  5. The top of scaffolding should be about 1.1 to 1.5 m above top of roof parapet for safety purposes.
  6. Catch fans, support brackets at base of scaffolding, temporary rain shelters on top of scaffolding, safety screens, etc. may be measured as extras.

Measure roofing

  1. Roofing comprises a number of layers (levelling layer, waterproofing layer, insulation layer, finishing layer).
  2. Their areas may not entirely be the same.
  3. However, it is advisable to measure one area for them first and make adjustments for surface channels, skirtings and lining to curbs.
  4. Levelling layers will have varying thickness to provide falls.
  5. Areas of different thickness should be measured separately.
  6. However, it is not advisable to group the thicknesses in stages of 25 mm to simplify the measurement and number of items.

Measure pipework, conduits and wiring, duct work for major building repair works

  1. For major building repair works, plumbing, drainage and M&E work are usually priced as lump sums.
  2. It is advisable to have some breakdown though not necessarily to every detail according to HKSMM4.
  3. It is advisable to require that the above-ground drainage system is priced:
    • by the number of vertical and common stacks
    • by the number of branches (e.g. flats, kitchens, bathrooms, balconies, etc.)
    • to enable better evaluation and comparison of costs per different buildings
    • to ease the valuation of variations involving a change to the number of stacks or branches.
  4. Fresh water supply pipes may branch out from individual meters to individual flats on different floors and can only be measured by lengths rather than by stacks or branches.
  5. Pipework after private meters is usually regarded as a private item.
  6. Flushing water supply pipework can be priced by the number of stacks and branches because it usually uses one common meter.
  7. Conduits and wiring in the final circuits are usually not separately measured but allowed for in the unit rates for lighting points, power points, socket points, etc.
  8. Rising mains and busbars are measured.
  9. Extensive fire services sprinkler system and air conditioning duct work are usually measured in detail.
  10. When detailed measurement is done, the measurement should follow the main route first and then the branches in a systematic manner.
  11. While pumps, sanitary fittings, fire service inlets, hose reels, sprinklers, fuse switch boards, lighting points, power points, socket points, detectors, some pipe ancillaries (valves, meters, etc.) may be counted once on plan or based on the schematic diagrams, it may be better to pick up the in-line fittings (bends, tees, branches, junctions, reducers, end caps, pipe sleeves) while measuring the routes because the necessity of these in-line fittings are not entirely shown on the drawings and will depend on the taker-off’s imagination of how the routes go up, down and turn.
  12. It is useful to draw isometric diagrams to illustrate and understand the routing, ups, downs and turns.
  13. For pipework, in-line fittings not exceeding 54 mm diameter are not measured according to HKSMM4.

End of Page

HKSMM4 2005 to HKSMM4 Revised 2018 Conversion Guide (incomplete)

HKSMM4 2005 to HKSMM4 Revised 2018 Conversion Guide (incomplete) KCTang Fri, 29/11/2019 - 12:49

Go to End

 

Draft in progress.

29 Nov 2019: Updated.

19 Nov 2019: Updated.

3 Aug 2019: Created.

NOTE

"HKSMM4" means Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works - Fourth Edition, 2005.

"HKSMM4R" means Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works - Fourth Edition Revised 2018.

"SMM" means HKSMM4 or HKSMM4R as the case may be.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

  • Generally
    • Some inconsistent words corrected.
  • Preliminaries
    • Some terms in the Preliminaries updated to match those now used in the industry.
  • Piling and caissons
    • Various types of hole or test boring and drilling for piles added.
    • Rock-socketed steel H-piles, mini-piles and pressure grouting added.
  • Excavation
    • Reduce level excavation all measured cube instead of super for thinner layer.
    • Minimum excavation measurement sizes for surface trenches, column or stanchion bases, isolated piers, manholes and the like removed.
    • Backfilling to excavation all measured cube instead of super for thinner layer.
  • Concrete works
    • Coverage rules for concrete expanded.
    • Holes not exceeding 150 mm diameter and openings not exceeding 0.50 m2 sectional area deemed included.
    • Cement grouting under steel column bases or under steel grillages deemed included.
    • Transfer plates added. Same rules as slabs.
    • Shoulders of different mixes in slabs deemed included.
    • Transfer beams added. Same rules as beams.
    • Formwork to beam of depth below slab soffit > 1.00 m instead of 0.75 m measured separately.
    • Formwork to tops, edges, breaks, risers and open strings not exceeding 300 mm wide grouped together instead of in stages of 100 mm.
    • Formwork to edges and soffits of copings, cills, strings, cornices, eaves overhangs and the like not exceeding 500 mm wide grouped by girth of 0 – 300 mm and 300 - 500 mm instead of in stages of 100 mm.
    • Forming holes for pipes, cables and the like > 150 mm diameter given as an item.
    • Boxing for openings less than 0.50 m2 instead of 0.025 m2 deemed included.
    • Reinforcement in precast concrete work deemed included.
  • Drainage
    • Drainage trench excavation classified by average depth only instead of total depth and average depth.
    • Manholes, inspection chambers, soakaways and back inlet gully traps classified by total depth of first 1.00 m then in stages of 0.50 m.
    • Drainage chamber-like items measured by number all inclusive.
    • Step irons and covers deemed included.
  • Wood works
    • Supports for suspended ceilings classified by suspension depth in stages of 1.50 m instead of 0 - 150 mm, 150 - 500 mm and in further 1.50 m stages.
    • Wooden doors measured as one set inclusive of frames or linings, openings and louvred openings.
    • Features in handrails and balustrades deemed included.
  • Ironmongery
    • Coverage rules for ironmongery expanded.
    • Door frame holdfasts, anchor bolts and rag bolts deleted but not deemed included in doors.
  • Steel and metal works
    • Coverage rules for structural steel expanded.
    • Tactile studs and tactile strips added.
    • Suspended ceilings deemed to include edge and angle trims and forming openings and holes.
    • Suspended ceilings classified by suspension depth in stages of 1.50 m instead of 0 - 150 mm, 150 - 500 mm and in further 1.50 m stages.
    • Suspended ceiling upstands and bulkheads classified by depth of first 600 mm instead of 300 mm then in stages of 300 mm.
  • Plastering and paving
    • Fire rated enclosure added.
    • Rounded angles and coves to in-situ finishes deemed included.
    • Angel fillets to in-situ finishes added.
    • Tactile tiles added.
  • Glazing
    • Glazing measured as part of windows and glazed doors.
    • Infill panels in curtain walling not separately measured.
    • Glazing classified by pane areas ≤ 0.15 m2, > 0.15 and ≤ 4.00 m2, and > 4.00 m2.
  • Painting
    • Painting on pipes and conduits classified by girth > 300 mm, girth ≤ 300 mm, and area ≤ 0.50 m2 irrespective of girth, instead of by diameter of ≤ 50 mm, 50 – 100 mm, > 100 mm.
  • Landscaping
    • Green planting systems, and statues, sculptures and stone features added.

 

TRACK-CHANGES

{deleted text in HKSMM4 added text in HKSMM4R} unchanged text in HKSMM4

 

Ref

Rules

 

GENERALLY

 

the {Main} Contractor

 

{Artists or Tradesmen Specialist Contractors}

III

PRELIMINARIES

8.

Plant{s}, Tools, Sheds, etc.

8.1

Plant, tools, scaffolding and staging{, special scaffolds if required for Nominated Sub-Contractors’ work}

9.

{Notices and Fees Statutory Obligations}

9.1

Compliance with and giving notices required by any Ordinance {of Government,} Regulations and Bye-Laws of {any} Government {Department, Local Authority and any Public Service Company or Authority, and any statutory undertakers and utility companies} …

10.

{Safety Supervision Plan and} Safety Precautions

10.1

{Compliance with the current Labour Department’s Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. Preparation of safety supervision plan and compliance with the approved plan and all applicable safety ordinances and regulations.}

11.

{Industrial Training Construction Industry} Levy

11.1

Payment of the levy legally demandable under the {Industrial Training (Construction Industry) Construction Industry Council} Ordinance

12.1

… Pneumoconiosis {and Mesothelioma} (Compensation) (Assessment of Levy) Regulations …

14.

{Foreman Contractor’s Site Management Team}

14.1

{General foreman and his attendance on the Works Construction manager and his site management and supervisory team’s attendance on the Works}

15.

Protection of Public (Property etc. and Adjacent Property)

15.1

Maintenance and protection of public property {and property, adjacent properties, existing slopes, roads, footpaths, trees, shrubs and services} of the Public Utility Companies …

17.

{Artists or Tradesmen not Sub-Contractors Persons or Specialist Contractors engaged by the Employer}

17.1

Permission for execution of work by {Artists and Tradesmen who are not Nominated Sub-Contractors and persons or Specialist Contractors} who may be engaged by the Employer.

19.

Insurances{, etc.}

19.1

{Insurances against or allowances to be made in respect of the following:

(a) Fire and extraneous perils

(b) Injury to persons and property

(c) Workmen’s compensation

Requirements in respect of the following insurances:

(a) Contractors’ all risks insurance of the Works

(b) Third party liability insurance

(c) Employees’ compensation insurance}

25.

{Treasure, Trove, Coins, etc. Antiquities}

29.

Removal of Water

Unit: Prov’l sum {/ Prov’l number of pumping hours}

30.1

Water for the Works, including that for Nominated Sub-Contractors{, Specialist Contractors employed by the Employer, statutory undertakers and utility companies} and any necessary temporary plumbing and storage

31.1

Lighting and power for the Works, including that for Nominated Sub-Contractors{, Specialist Contractors employed by the Employer, statutory undertakers and utility companies} and any necessary temporary wiring and meters

34.1

Works to be carried out by Government Departments{, or Public Utility Companies which are dealt with by means of Provisional Sums statutory undertakers and utility companies}, e.g.:

(a) Taking up and replaying the paving of public roads and footpaths

(b) Forming permanent crossing

(c) Connections to fresh and flush water, gas, electric mains, telephone, drainage and the like

Unit: Item

40.

{Building Information Modelling}

40.1

{Requirements in respect of building information modelling for design, construction or facility management purposes

Unit: Item}

IV

DEMOLITIONS AND ALTERATIONS

(a)

Demolitions

2.

3.

4.

Demolishing individual structure

Demolishing parts of structures

Clearing the site of all structures

{6. Toxic/hazardous material, type stated}

(b)

Alterations

4.

Pulling down walls, partitions, suspended ceilings, floors, roofs, staircases and other parts of old structures

{4. Toxic/hazardous material, type stated}

V

PILING AND CAISSONS

(a)

Piling General

1.

Generally

The following general information, where available, shall be given:

(a) Ground level in relation to high and low water tables and {Ordinance} Principal Datum

(c) The various levels from which {piling frames will operate the measurements have been taken are stated, irregular ground levels are so described}

<Comment: drafting style inconsistent with the remaining items.>

(b)

Steel Sheet Piling

10.

{Pre-boring the pile holes

1. Size of the cross-section of each pile stated

1. Depth of individual bores ≤ 10.00 m

2. Depth of individual bores > 10.00 m in stages of 5.00 m

Unit: m (nr stated)

M.8 Pre-boring is only measured where it is specifically required.

M.9 Measured from point of entry into ground to bottom of bore.

C.4 This work is deemed to include:

(a) Movement of boring rigs into position and about the site, any necessary excavation or filling required to place the rigs, raising or lowering the rigs and any staging, barges or the like required to support the rigs

(b) Drilling to required depths

(c) Filling voids between sides of piles and bores with approved materials}

<Comment:

The cross-section of the bored hole instead of the pile should be stated.

The "depth" should be described as "total depth" to avoid the meaning of successive depths. 

The pre-bored holes may be contiguous (adjacent to each other) or secant (overlapping each other). It may be more convenient to measure the elevation area of the trench wall formed by the pre-bored holes from the point of entry into ground to the bottom of the trench wall with the cross-sections and spacing of the pre-bored holes stated.> 

(e)

Bored Piles

2.

Boring the pile holes

1. Size of bore cross-section stated

{1. Total length of shaft ≤ 10.00 m

2. Total length of shaft in further stages of 5.00 m

1. Depth of individual bores ≤ 10.00 m

2. Depth of individual bores > 10.00 m in stages of 5.00 m}

Unit: m (nr stated)

C1 This work is deemed to include:

{(c) Provision of temporary casings to shaft bores including sinking and withdrawal operations

(d) Additional excavation required to accommodate temporary casings and permanent linings (if specified) and the consequent disposal of additional excavated material}

<Comment: The "depth" should be described as "total depth" to avoid the meaning of successive depths.> 

11.

{Sonic test

1. Sonic tube

1. Size, thickness and material stated

Unit: m

2. Sonic test

Unit: nr}

11a.

{Koden test

1. Verticality and bell-out

Unit: nr}

12.

Concrete coring test

1. Diameter of core {and grouting requirements} stated

1. Starting level of drilling below commencement level {stated in stages of 15.00 m}

Unit: m (nr stated)

<Comment: It is still preferred to state the starting level in stages. Otherwise, there would be too many items due to different starting levels.>

14.

{Pre-drilling

1. Diameter of borehole stated

1. Drilling depth measured in stage of 15.00 m

Unit: m (nr stated)}

<Comment: It would be better to call it "drill hole".>

15.

{Post construction proof drilling}

(f)

Steel Piles

9.

{Pre-boring Boring the pile holes}

1. Size of pile stated

1. {Total length of shaft Depth of individual bores} ≤ 10.00 m

2. {Total length of shaft in further Depth of individual bores > 10.00 m in} stages of 5.00 m

Unit: m (nr stated)

<Comment: The "depth" should be described as "total depth" to avoid the meaning of successive depths.>

12.

13.

{Pre-drilling

Post construction proof drilling

1. Diameter of boreholes stated

1. Drilling depth measured in stages of 15.00 m

Unit: m (nr stated)}

<Comment: It would be better to call it "drill hole".>

 

Rock-socketed steel H-piles

Mini-piles

Pressure grouting

 

<Sections added>

VI

EXCAVATION

(a)

Excavation

3.

Excavating

3.2

Excavation to reduce levels over site{, > 0.20 m in average depth average depth stated if ≤ 0.20 m}

Unit: m3

3.5

Surface trenches

Unit: m3

{M.6 Where trenches exceed 1.00 m in depth a minimum width of 0.75 m is measured}

3.7

Excavation for column or stanchion bases, isolated piers, manholes and the like, each given separately

Unit: m3

{M.7 Where these excavations exceed 1.50 m in depth a minimum measurement on plan of 1.25 m x 1.25 m is taken for excavation.}

7.

Backfilling to excavation

{1. ≤ 0.30 m in depth, average depth stated

Unit: m2

2. > 0.30 m in depth (where part exceeds 0.30 m in depth, the whole is given cube)}

Unit: m3

VII

CONCRETE WORKS

(a)

Concrete

1.

Generally

C.1 Each item of concrete work is deemed to include {for:

(a) Mixing, conveying, hoisting or lowering, placing in position, vibrating, curing, protection and complying with temperature control requirements

forming grooves (other than in fair faced concrete to form ornamental features), chases, mortices,

(b) Forming grooves (other than in fair faced concrete to form ornamental features), chases, mortices

grouting in balusters, bolts, dowels and the like with cement,

(c) Grouting in balusters, bolts, dowels and the like with cement mortar

holes for pipes, openings ≤ 0.025 m2 sectional area, and the required steel trimming bars to these holes and openings and making good and other sundry items of a like nature

(d) Forming holes for pipes, cables and the like etc. ≤ 150 mm diameter, and openings ≤ 0.50 m2 sectional area, and the required steel trimming bars to these holes and openings and making good

(e) Forming of all construction joints including the provision of approved waterstops or other similar material (except those joints designed by the Engineer)

(f) Casting kickers monolithically with base slab where these are required at base of walls and columns

(g) Forming angles, ends, intersections and similar labours to curbs, copings, channels and other items measured run

(h) Provision and submission of concrete test cubes for testing and provision of test certificates.}

12.

{Cement grouting under steel column bases or under steel grillages

12.1 Mix and thickness stated

Unit: m2}

18.

19.

19a.

Suspended slabs

Coffered and troughed slabs

1. Horizontal

2. Sloping ≤ 15 degrees

3. Sloping > 15 degrees

{Transfer plates

1. Thickness stated}

Unit: m3

C.9 {Shoulders of different (or stronger) mix are deemed to include for any additional formwork or permanent mesh separation barriers required to form the shoulders. This work is deemed to include shoulders or haunchings of richer (or stronger) mix including any additional formwork or permanent mesh separation barriers required to form the shoulders and haunchings.}

21a.

Transfer beams

Unit: m3

(d)

Formwork

2.

3.

3a.

3b.

Soffits of slabs

Soffits of landings

{Soffits of stairs

Soffits of transfer plates}

7.

7a.

Sides of soffits of beams

{Sides and soffits of transfer beams}

1. Depth of beams ≤ {0.75 1.00} m (below soffit of slab)

2. Depth of beams > {0.75 1.00} m (below soffit of slab)

8.

9.

Top formwork

Edges and breaks in slabs and walls, including soffits of openings in walls and sides of curbs

1. Straight

2. Curved

1. Width > 300 mm

Unit: m2

{2. Width ≤ 100 mm

3. Width > 100 mm and ≤ 200 mm

4. Width > 200 mm and ≤ 300 mm

2. Width ≤ 300 mm}

Unit: m

10.

Risers and open strings of stairs

1. Straight

2. Curved

{1. Width ≤ 100 mm

2. Thereafter in stages of 100 mm

Unit: m}

1. Width > 300 mm

Unit: m2

2. Width ≤ 300 mm

Unit: m

11.

Edges and soffits of copings, cills, strings, cornices, eaves overhangs and the like {≤ 0.50m wide}, grouped together

1. Straight

2. Curved

{1. Girth ≤ 0.30 m stated in stages of 100 mm

Unit: m

1. Girth > 0.50 m

Unit: m2

2. Girth ≤ 0.30 m

3. Girth > 0.30 m and ≤ 0.50 m

Unit: m}

 

15.

Forming holes for pipes, cables and the like, > 150 mm diameter

{1. Thickness of concrete and size of pipe or cable etc. stated

Unit: nr

Unit: item}

<Comment: This virtually means that an item must be given for every job involving concrete works.>

16.

Boxings for openings > {0.025 0.50} m2 and ≤ 1.00 m2 sectional area

1. Thickness of concrete and size in stages of 0.10 m2

Unit: nr

(e)

Precast Concrete Work

1.

Generally

C.1 {All moulds are deemed to be included in the item. All reinforcement and moulds with specified finished surfaces are deemed to be included.}

2.

Bench slabs, seat slabs, façade panels, partition slabs, bollards, posts, planters etc.

1. Dimensioned description

1. {Reinforcement details stated

2.} Cast-in accessories, details stated

Unit: nr

 

<Comment: It should not mean that no reinforcement details are to be provided on the Tender Drawings made available for the Tenderers, otherwise it would lead to argument as to the extent of reinforcement required. Even if the detailed drawings are made available, it would require the Tenderers to inspect the drawings. For less complicated reinforcement details, it is still preferred to state the details in the BQ descriptions. If the details are left to the Contractor to design, it should be so stated.>

VIII

BRICKWORK AND BLOCKWORK

(a)

Brickwork and Blockwork

1.

Generally

C.1 Each item of Brickwork and Block Wall is deemed to include:

(a) All rough and fair cuttings

(b) Wedging and pinning

(c) Raking out joints to form key

(d) Raking out joints for and pointing flashings

(e) Labour eaves filling

(f) Plumbing angles and forming square and rebated reveals

(g) {Notches, forming or leaving or cutting chases Forming or leaving or cutting chases, grooves, notches, holes, mortices and similar including nay pinning, grouting and making good}

(h) {Holes and mortices and cutting and pinning and making good Cutting squints, birdmouths, splays, chamfers and similar labour items}

(i) Centering

{(j) Bedding and pointing frames, bedding plates and similar items

(k) Leaving pockets in the work to receive built-in items including subsequently blocking up}

{(j)(l)} And any other sundry items of a like nature

<Comment: New rule (j) also appears in the coverage rules of many other wood works and metal works items. The introduction of this new rule may cause uncertainty as to whether the costs are deemed included in brickwork and blockwork or in other wood works and metal works items.>

23.

{Sundry items built in or attached to brickwork or blockwork, type or name stated

1. Building in sundry items, described

2. Plugging and screwing sundry items to brickwork or blockwork described

3. Shot firing sundry items to brickwork or blockwork, described

1 Thickness of wall stated, description includes formation of opening and lintol

Unit: nr}

<Comment: It does not mean that all sundry items are deemed included and not to be measured.>

IX

DRAINAGE (including Underground Pipe Ducts)

2.

3.

Excavating trenches for drain pipes

Excavating trenches for pipe ducts

{1. Total depth stated in stages of 1.50 m, (i.e. ≤ 1.50 m total depth, > 1.50 m and  ≤ 3.00 m total depth, etc.)

average depth stated in multiples of 0.25 m, and commencing level stated

1. Average trench depth stated in multiples of 0.25 m, and commencing level stated}

Unit: m

13.

14.

15.

16.

Manholes

Inspection chambers

Soakaways

{Others Back inlet gully traps

1. Dimensioned description given for each type of design

1. Total depth between the cover level and invert level ≤ 1.00 m deep

2. Thereafter in stages of 0.50 m deep}

Unit: nr

M.2 {Where of a standard design these items enumerated and fully described, description includes covers, step irons and intercepting traps. These items enumerated and fully described, description includes excavation, concrete, formwork, reinforcement, steel joists, brickwork, benchings, rendered coatings, painting, covers, step irons, intercepting traps and other works.}

M.3 {Alternatively, where not of standard design they are measured in the same way as items 17 to 22 hereof. Alternatively, they are measured in detail in accordance with the rules in the appropriate Sections.}

<Comment: For each type of manhole, the covers may vary depending on the locations of the manholes. It would be better to measure the covers separately to reduce the number of combinations of manholes and different covers. The type of covers is also more subject to change. Separating the measurement would obtain rates for variation valuation.>

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

Cesspools

Septic Tanks

Grease traps

{Petrol Interceptors}

Others

{1. Excavation

2. Concrete

3. Formwork

4. Reinforcement

5. Brickwork

6. Rendered coatings

7. Painting}

1. Dimensioned description given for each type of design

Unit: nr

{8. Benchings, including channels

1. Average thickness stated

Unit: m2}

20.

{Step irons}

21.

{Covers}

25.

Connections with public sewers

{1. Where relevant details are available, these works are given separately in accordance with the appropriate measurement rules

2. Where no detail is available, a provisional sum is given}

Unit: Prov’l Sum

XIII

WOOD WORKS

(b) General Clauses Applicable to the Following Sections (c) through (m)
1.

Generally

{C.1 All wood works are deemed to include screws, bolts, dowels, holdfasts, ragbolts, patent connectors, cleats, brackets, plates and similar fixings including drilling and mortices in structure and grouting the same.}

(d)

Raised Access Floors

1.

Floors

1. {Thickness of panels stated Type, modular size and surface finish of panels stated}

1. Height of cavity stated

Unit: m2

2.

Ramps

3.

Items measured extra over the floors in which they occur

1. {Electrical and data panels, air grilles, diffusers, perforated panels and other special Special} panels

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: nr

1.

2.

3.

Floors

Ramps

Items measured extra over the floors in which they occur

C.1 Raised access floors are deemed to include:

(a) {Panels Floor panels}, supporting structures, adhesives, bearing pads{, gaskets, sealants, seals, edge mouldings} and the like

(b) Cutting and notching and extra supports

{(c) Forming openings for building service penetrations, electrical floor boxes, air diffusers and similar outlets}

(e)

Sheet Linings/Claddings, Timber Suspended Ceilings, Unframed Trims, Insulation, Proofing Works and Fire Stops

<Comment: “Cladding” is an uncountable noun without “s”.>

6.

Supports for suspended ceilings

1. Skeleton grounds, described

2. Framework, described

3. Framework for shaped ceiling, described

1. Fixed to soffit, background and method of fixing described

2. Suspended from soffit, hangers and spacing described with depth of suspension ≤ {150 mm 1.50 m}

{3. Ditto with depth of suspension 150 mm – 500 mm

4.3.} Ditto with depth of suspension stated thereafter in 1.50 m stages

Unit: m2

(i)

Doors, Hatches, Ventilators and the like and Frames and Linings

1.

Flush doors {and frames}

1. (Size, thickness and construction stated and facings and applied mouldings etc. described Dimensioned description of doors, frames or linings, stating the door size, thickness, construction, facings and applied mouldings etc. and size, number and type of glass panels and louvres)

            1. Single leaf doors

2. Folding doors

3. Swinging doors

4. Sliding doors

5. Sliding and folding doors

Unit: {nr or} Sets

<Comment: The doors may be separated from the frames and linings this can reduce the number of combinations of doors and framing or linings. This would also obtain rates for doors and frames or linings separately for variation valuation.>

2.

{Items measured extra over flush doors

1. Openings for glass

2. Louvred openings

1. Size and edge treatment stated

Unit: nr}

<Comment: The above comment also applies here.>

3.

Framed and paneled doors {and frames}

1. {Sectional sizes of stiles, rails, transoms, muntins, panels and the like given and size and number of panels and glazed or louvred panels stated Dimensioned description of doors, frames or linings, stating the sectional sizes of stiles, rails, transoms, muntins, panels and the like and size and number of panels and glazed or louvred panels

            1. Single leaf doors

2. Folding doors

3. Swinging doors

4. Sliding doors

5. Sliding and folding doors}

Unit: nr or Sets

<Comment: The above comment also applies here.>

4.

Fire rated doors and frames

1. Dimensioned description of doors, frames {and/}or linings

            {1. Ironmongery described}

Unit: Sets

<Comment: Ironmongery should be described.>

8.

9.

{Door frames

Door linings

1. Overall sizes of doors or door sets given, and cross section of members stated

1. Solid and built-up frames or linings are given separately, grounds or backings are described and included in the item­

Unit: nr}

<Comment: There are still merits to measure them separately.>

(j)

Stairs, Handrails and Balustrades

3.

Handrails

1. Dimensioned description with method of jointing {and mounting} handrail stated. If hollowed for and screwed to metal core this is stated

Unit: m

4.

{Items measured extra over handrails

1. Ramps

2. Wreaths

3. Bends

4 Ornamental ends

Unit: nr}

<Comment: It is advisable to describe them in the handrail descriptions, and to measure expensive features separately as extra over items.>

5.

Balustrades

1. Dimensioned description with spacing of balusters{, opening portions and method of jointing and mounting} stated

Unit: m

6.

{Items measured extra over balustrades

1. Ramps

2. Wreaths

3. Bends

4 Ornamental ends

5. Opening portions, details stated

6. Method of jointing handrail stated

Unit: nr}

<Comment: It is advisable to describe them in the balustrade descriptions, and to measure expensive features separately as extra over items.>

XIV

IRONMONGERY

1.

Generally

C.1 Ironmongery and fixing only of ironmongery supplied under a separate Prime Cost Item are deemed to include:

{(a) Fixing to any type of timber or building board unless some other surface is stated

(a) Fitting, cutting, sinking, boring and morticing

(b) Fitting, cutting, housing, sinking, boring, morticing, drilling and similar labours to the material to which the article is being fixed

(b) Supplying and screwing with screws to match

(c) Provision of all necessary screws to match the ironmongery, and any bolts, nuts, washers, nails, pins, lugs, adhesive or similar items required

(c) Drilling for and provision of plugs where required

(d) Drilling and plugging of concrete, brick, stone or other materials where required

(e) Oiling, easing and adjusting ironmongery and leaving in working order}

7.

Dowels

1. Size and length stated

Unit: nr

{M.5 Individual dowels, where not forming part of doors, are measured here.}

<Comment: The coverage rules for doors and frames do not include dowels. A preamble is required to deem door frames and linings to include for dowels.>

8.

{Holdfasts

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: nr}

<Comment: The coverage rules for doors and frames do not include this item. A preamble is required to deem door frames and linings to include for this item.>

9.

{Anchor bolts and rag bolts

Unit: r}

<Comment: The coverage rules for doors and frames do not include this item. A preamble is required to deem door frames and linings to include for this item.>

XV

STEEL AND METAL WORKS

(a)

Structural Steel

2. – 16.

C.1 Items for fabrication and erection are deemed to include {for}:

{(a) Cutting, notching and drilling

(a) Shop and site rivets and black bolts, nuts and washers

(b) Shop and site rivets

(c) Bolts including black bolts and high strength friction grip bolts complete with nuts and washers

(b) Welding, welding tests and X-rays

(d) Welding materials and welding tests including X-rays and other non-destructive tests as specified

(e) Galvanising to structural steelwork if specified}

{(c)(f)} Performance tests

{(d)(g)} Packings where required for connections, caps and bases

{(e) (h)} Wedging and grouting under bases

17.

18.

{Surface preparation}

Surface treatment

{1. Described

1. Sprayed metal coating

2. Protective painting

3. Other treatment type stated

1. Surface preparation described

2. Number of coats stated

3. Thickness of coat(s) stated

4. Fire rating stated

5. Finish stated}

Unit: m2

C.2 {The areas are deemed to include for works to additional surface areas of cleats and brackets etc. in connections. Additional surface areas of cleats and brackets etc. in connection are deemed to be included.

C.3 All surface preparation is deemed to be included.}

<Comment: “are/is deemed to be included” is superfluous when given under the Coverage Rules column.>

(e) Framed Work, Stairs, Handrails and Balustrades
2. - 6.

{C.2 (f) Core-rails and handrails are deemed to include for angles, ramps, wreathes and the like.

C.3 Core-rails, handrails and tubular handrails are deemed to include joints in the running lengths, bends, angles, ramps, wreathes, junctions, capped ends, flange plates, brackets and the like.}

5.

Mat frames

1. {Fully described Dimensioned description}

Unit: nr

6.

Core rails{, and} handrails {and tubular handrails}

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: m

7.

{Brackets to core rails and handrails

Unit: nr}

<Comment: To include in descriptions.>

8.

{Tubular handrails

Unit: m}

<Comment: Grouped in item 6.>

9.

{Items measured extra over tubular handrails and balustrades

1. Ramps

2. Wreathes

3. Bends

4. Junctions, described

5. Capped ends

6. Flange plates

Unit: nr}

10.

{Brackets to tubular handrails

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: nr}

<Comment: To include in descriptions.>

12.

{Gratings to floor channels and the like

1. Dimensioned description

2. General length of sections stated

Unit: m}

<Comment: Measure as (h) Sundries.>

13.

{Frames to gratings to floor channels and the like

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: m}

<Comment: Measure as (h) Sundries.>

14.

{Gratings to openings, ventilators and the like

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: nr}

<Comment: Measure as (h) Sundries.>

(h)

Sundries

11.

12.

{Tactile studs

Tactile strips

1. Warning/stop tactiles

2. Direction/go tactiles

3. Turning/positional tactiles

1. Dimensioned description, method of fixing and background for fixing stated

Unit: m2 or m (width stated)}

(m)

Suspended Ceilings

1.

Generally

C.1 Ceilings are deemed to include:

(a) Rails, hangers, spacers{, suspension and framed members} and the like

{(f) Edge and angle trims

(g) Forming openings and holes}

2.

3.

Tiled or panelled ceilings

Metal strip ceilings

1. Depth of suspension ≤ {150 mm 1.50 m}

{2. Depth of suspension 150 – 500 mm

3. Thereafter in 500 mm stages

2. Thereafter in 1.50 m stages}

Unit: m2

5.

Upstands {and bulkheads}

1. Height ≤ {300 mm 600 mm}

2. Thereafter in 300 mm stages

Unit: m

7.

{Edge trims

1. Plain

2. Floating

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: m}

8.

{Angle trims

Unit: m}

(n)

Windows and Glazed Doors

2.

3.

4.

5.

Windows

Glazed doors

Composite metal windows

Composite metal window and doors

1. Dimensioned description, overall size and drawing reference stated

1. Glazing {beads} described

2. Ironmongery described

Unit: nr

C.1 Windows and doors are deemed to include:

(a) Fixing including all screws and bolts, shot fired fixings and lugs

(b) Morticing ends of transoms and mullions and/or strengtheners to same

(c) Ironmongery and fittings

{(d) Glazing and glazing beads and compounds}

 

<Comment: Not measuring glazing separately will not obtain rates for variation valuation when the glazing is changed, which is rather usual.>

(p)

Curtain Walling

2.

Curtain walling

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: m2

<Comment: It would be preferable to measure vision and spandrel areas separately, and measure special corners, coping, soffit strips, feature strips, which are not proportional to the areas.>

3.

Items extra over curtain walling in which they occur

{1. Infill panels

1. Type and thickness stated

Unit: m2}

{2. 1.} Opening lights

{3. 2.} Doors

1. Dimensioned description

Unit: nr

2.

3.

Curtain walling

Items extra over curtain walling in which they occur

C.3 Items include:

(a) {doors, where supplied with the unit} Finishes as specified

(b) Architraves, trims and the like {where part of the component}

(c) Ironmongery {where supplied with the component associated with windows and doors}

(d) Glazing and infill panels

(e) Mechanical operation and automatic operating equipment where supplied with the component

(f) Sealing all joints and bedding and pointing frames

(g) Sealant or separation material to surfaces of aluminium in contact with concrete, plaster or brickwork

(h) Fixings and fastenings

(i) Stripping protective coverings or coatings

XVI

PLASTERING AND PAVING

(b)

Lathing and Plasterboard

1.

2.

3.

Metal lathing

1. Mesh stated

2. Laps stated

Plasterboard

1. Thickness stated

{Fire rated enclosure

1. Material, thickness and fire resisting period stated}

{8. To top, sides and soffits for enclosing individual pipe and duct, or group of pipes and ducts and the like}

Unit: m2

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Metal lathing

Plasterboard

{Fire rated enclosure}

Stop beads

Angle beads

C.2 The work is deemed to include the provision of approved timber or steel framing to support plasterboard or fire rated board as required.

<Comment: Whether it is timber or steel framing should be stated.>

(d)

In-situ Surface Finishes and Screeds or Backings

1. - 23.

{C.1 Work is deemed to include:

(a) Cleaning off and wetting surfaces of concrete slabs, and washing with cement grout if the concrete has hardened

(a)(b) Internal angles, arrises, throats, drips and the like

(b)(c) Coves, grooves and rounded external angles  ≤ 25 mm radius

(c)(d) Angles, stops, intersections, fair ends, junctions, wreathed corners and the like on coves, skirtings, channels, strings, curbs and the like}

13.

14.

{Rounded angles > 25 mm radius

Coves > 25 mm radius

Unit: m}

<Comment: A preamble is required to include these items.>

20a.

{Angle fillets

1. Width and depth stated

Unit: m}

(e)

Tile and Slab Finishes

24.

{Tactile tiles

1. Warning/stop tactiles

2. Direction/go tactiles

3. Turning/positional tactiles

1. Dimensioned description, method of fixing and background or fixing stated

Unit: m2 or m (width stated)}

XX

GLAZING

(a)

General Glazing (including Acrylic and Polycarbonate Sheets)

1.

Generally

M.1 Glass measured in this Sub-section is for general glazing {to windows, doors, etc.}.

M.2 Glass in the following positions are measured in the appropriate Sub-sections of Section XIII Wood Works and XV Steel and Metal Works:

(a) Fixed and demountable partitions

(b) Office partitions

(c) Shop fronts

(d) Curtain walling

(e) Furniture and fittings etc.

{(f) Windows and glazing doors}

2.

3.

{Glazing

<>

1. Panes area ≤ 0.15 m2

2. Panes, area > 0.15 and ≤ 4.00 m2

3. Panes > 4.00 m2

1. Type, quality and thickness of glass stated

Unit: m2}

XXI

PAINTING

2.

3.

Painting on pipes and conduits

{1. Bore > 100 mm, diameter stated

2. Bore > 50 mm and ≤ 100 mm diameter

3. Bore ≤ 50 mm, diameter}

Painting on eaves gutters

{1. Size stated

Unit: m

1. Surfaces, girth > 300 mm

Unit: m2

2. Surfaces, girth ≤ 300 mm

Unit: m

3. Isolated surfaces ≤ 0.50 m2, irrespective of girth

Unit: nr

XXII

LANDSCAPING

(f)

Green Planting Systems

1.

2.

{Vertical green wall systems

Horizontal green roof systems

1. For proprietary systems, catalogue reference, components of the system and background for fixing stated

Unit: m2 or Set

2. For other systems, each component of the system is measured in accordance with the measurement rule in the appropriate Section.

M.1 Plants are measured separately.

M.2 Measured the area covered by the green planting system.}

(g)

Statues, Sculptures and Stone Features

1.

2.

3.

4.

{Statues

Sculptures

Stone features

Others

1. Catalogue reference or dimensioned description and method of fixing

Unit: nr or Set

C.1 This work is deemed to include the provision of any additional framing support required for securely fixing into position.}

<Comment: The framing support should be described.>

                     

 

End of Page

Measurement Checklists

Measurement Checklists KCTang Mon, 23/03/2020 - 18:12

Go to End

Note

23 Mar 2020: Numeric numbering system adopted. Punctuation standardised.

13 Mar 2020: Contents expanded.

3 Aug 2019: HKSMM4 Revised 2018 incorporated.

27 Jul 2019: Split to its own page and revised.

23 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

Clarify which Method of Measurement

  1. The Method of Measurement (more properly “rules”) to be used or which has been used should be clarified during the briefing session upon commencement of taking-off. 
    採用的標準工程量計算規則在開始計量的交底會確定。
  2. For pre-contract cost estimates, the Method of Measurement will be determined by the Consultants, and the quantities are usually approximate and relative items are grouped together to save time.
  3. For Pricing Schedules with quantities provided by the Consultants, the Method of Measurement should be stated.
  4. For new works, the Method of Measurement will be prescribed as to follow the Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works – Fourth Edition 2005 (“HKSMM4”) or Fourth Edition Revised 2018 ("HKSMM4R") published by The Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors.
  5. For Government term maintenance contracts, they use the Schedule of Rates for Term Contracts for Building Works (ttp://www.archsd.gov.hk/en/publications-publicity/bill-of-quantities,-method-…), which prescribe the Method of Measurement.
  6. The standard methods of measurement describe what should be measured and what can be deemed to be included in the rates and prices and need not be measured.
  7. For Pricing Schedules with quantities to be inserted by the Tenderers, the Method of Measurement may be prescribed by the Consultants but usually it is left to the Tenderers.
  8. The Tenderers may follow the standard Method of Measurement or may simplify or deviate.
  9. In any case, the method used by the Tenderers in the Pricing Schedule should be used for pricing variations and remeasured provisional quantities.

Read Method of Measurement 閱讀標準工程量計算規則

  1. Inexperienced Takers-off should read the relevant sections of the prescribed Method of Measurement before taking-off.
    生手計量員應在計量前閱讀瞭解計算規則。
  2. Experienced Takers-off should review the relevant sections of the prescribed Method of Measurement from time to time during the course of taking-off.
    熟手計量員應不時重溫計算規則。
  3. Upon completion of taking-off, all Takers-off should take a final review of the prescribed Method of Measurement to ensure that there are no missing items to be measured.
    計量完畢,全部計量員應翻閱計算規則,確保沒有錯漏。

Pay extra attention to how to treat 特別要注意如何處理的

  1. Wastage (not measured).
    損耗
  2. Gross or net measurement.
    毛或淨量
  3. Deductions for openings (small voids or openings not deducted, such as those not exceeding 0.50 m2 or 1.00 m2 or 0.50 m3 depending on the type of work).
    扣除孔洞
  4. Laps and intersections.
    搭接、交叉
  5. Working space for excavation (0.25 m or 0.60 m depending on the height of formwork below ground).
    工作面
  6. Slopes of excavated spaces (designed or restricted excavation profiles).
    放坡
  7. Staging or ranging where items can be measured together or separately (excavation depth below ground in successive stages of 1.50 m, soffit formwork and ceiling finishes heights above floor not exceeding 3.50 m high, then in 1.50 m stages, etc.).
    步距
  8. Sloping work (from horizontal) / slanting work (from vertical).
    斜坡、傾斜
  9. Circular work (usually measured separately).
    弧形
  10. Extra over items (principal items overlapping with the extra over items not deducted in the quantities, but to be considered in the unit rates, e.g. pipe bends, tees, etc.).
    補差計量
  11. Tenderers not strictly following any standard Method of Measurement may follow the above treatment as common practice.

Measure net quantities

  1. Measure all work net as fixed in position, unless otherwise stated.
  2. This is a very important principle.
  3. If there is no prescribed Method of Measurement, at least state that “all work is to be measured its net quantity as fixed in position with no allowance for wastage and, in case of work measured superficially, for laps, unless otherwise stated”.
  4. Work which are “superficial” (as compared to “linear” or “cubic”) and have laps not to be measured are wire mesh, waterproof layers, pitched roof tiling, etc.
  5. Work which are linear and have laps to be measured are reinforcement bars, door frames, skirtings, etc.

Deduct voids

  1. Voids (openings and wants) smaller than the sizes specified in the SMM are not to be deducted.
  2. However, this refers to voids detached from the boundaries of the space measured.
  3. Voids caused by projections from the boundary of the space measured are always deducted:

Costs held to be included in items (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R)

  1. Labour and all costs in connection therewith
  2. Materials, goods and all costs in connection therewith (e.g. conveyance, delivery, unloading, storing, returning packings, handling, hoisting and lowering)
  3. Fitting and fixing materials and goods in positions
  4. Use of plant
  5. All cutting and waste
  6. Establishment charges, overhead charges and profit.

Units of measurement (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R)

  1. Items given by weight - kilograms
  2. Items given cube - cubic metres
  3. Items given super - square metres
  4. Items given run - linear metres
  5. Items enumerated - number of sets, as applicable
  6. Items given by time - Days or Hours, with definitions stated
  7. Dimensions used in calculations - rounded off to the nearest 10 mm.

Units of billing (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R)

  1. Billing BQ:
    • Rounded to the nearest whole unit
    • Subject to a minimum of 1 if more than 0
  2. Billing variations and remeasurement:
    • Rounded to the nearest 0.1 for m, m2, m3
    • Rounded to the nearest 1 for kg
    • Applicable to omissions or additions
    • Quantity less than 1 but billed as 1 in the original contract to be omitted as 1 if the quantity is not done.

Order of dimensions in BQ or dimension sheets

  • Generally in the sequence of length, width and height.

Ranges

  1. When a range of widths, heights, depths, etc. is given in the item description in a Pricing Schedule, “A – B” usually means “exceeding A but not exceeding B”.
  2. A - B = exceeding A but not exceeding B = "> A but <= B".

Pipe and tubing

  1. Pipe size: to be described by nominal sizes (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R) vs by internal diameter (HKSMM3).
  2. HKSMM3 pipe size groups for the purposes of painting (all measured run):
    • Small pipes = pipes <= 55 mm diameters
    • Large pipes = pipes 55 - 110 mm diameters
    • Pipe size stated = pipes > 110 mm diameters.
  3. HKSMM4 pipe size groups for the purposes of painting (all measured run):
    • pipes <= 50 mm diameters
    • pipes 50 - 100 mm diameters
    • pipes > 110 mm diameters, pipe size stated.
  4. HKSMM4R pipe size groups for the purposes of painting:
    • pipes <= 300 mm girth (measured run)
    • pipes > 300 mm girth (measured super).

Circular work

  1. HKSMM3 only:
    • Small radius = 0 - 300 mm radius
    • Medium radius = 300 mm - 1.50 m radius
    • Large radius = radius > 1.50 m.
  2. HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R:
    • No grouping by radius.

Prime Cost Rates (P.C. Rates)

  1. Where a prime cost rate (P.C. rate) is included for a component in the description of an item in the Bills of Quantities, the prime cost rate is either (a) for the material cost of that component delivered to site only and the Contractor shall allow in addition for all waste, fixing, all ancillary materials required for fixing such as mortar for bedding and jointing and all other similar items of a like nature, and for profits and overheads, or (b) for the cost of supply and installation or application of the component (such as specialist suspended ceilings or finishes) as charged by a domestic sub-contractor, and the Contractor shall allow for his own profits and overheads.
  2. In the settlement of the Final Account, the rate for the item will be adjusted by the net difference between the prime cost rate and the actual unit cost and will be applied to the nett quantity of the component measured as fixed, installed or applied in position, exclusive of wastage.

Provisional Sum

  1. A sum provided for work or for costs which cannot be entirely foreseen, defined or detailed at the time the tendering documents are issued (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R).
  2. In the settlement of the Final Account, the provisional sum will be omitted from, and the actual expenditure added to the Contract Sum.

Prime Cost Sum

  1. A sum provided for work or for services to be executed by a Nominated Sub-Contractor or for materials or goods to be obtained from a Nominated Supplier. Such sum shall be deemed to be exclusive of any profit or attendance required by the Contractor and provision shall be made for the addition thereof (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R).
  2. In the settlement of the Final Account, the Prime Cost Sum will be omitted from, and the actual expenditure added to the Contract Sum.
  3. The Contractor’s profit is to be allowed as a percentage of the Prime Cost Sum. The same percentage will be applied to the final expenditure of the Prime Cost Sum in the settlement of the Final Account.
  4. The Contractor’s attendance is to be allowed as a lump sum not to be adjusted in the settlement of the Final Account, but if the Prime Cost Sum is not expended at all, then the lump sum will be omitted.

Work to be specifically described as such (HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R)

  1. Work under reservoir, river or sea water
  2. Work in compressed air
  3. Work outside the curtilage of the Site
  4. Work in existing building
  5. Temporary works.

Preliminaries

  1. Items should be included in the Preliminaries Bill to inform the tenderers and to specify requirements to enable them to price for the costs.
  2. HKSMM4R:
    • Preliminary Particulars
      • Employer and consultants
      • Description of the Works
      • Site and inspection
      • Division of the Works into sections
    • Conditions of Contract
      • Forms of Contract and Sub-Contract
      • Particulars to be inserted in Appendix to Schedule of Conditions
    • General matters
      • Working hours, rates of wages, etc.
      • Plant, tools, scaffolding, site offices, sheds, etc.
      • Statutory obligations
      • Safety supervision plan and safety precautions
      • Construction Levy
      • Pneumoconiosis and Mesothelioma Levies
      • Setting out
      • Contractor's site management team
      • Protection of public and adjacent property
      • Sub-letting
      • Persons or specialist contractors engaged by the Employer
      • Injury to persons and damage to property
      • Insurances (Contractors' all risks, third party liability, employees' compensation, construction plant, materials off site)
      • Provisional and Prime Cost Sums
      • Conditions of payment
      • Surety or bond
      • Watching
      • Protection
      • Antiquities, etc.
      • Variations and method of measuring and valuing
      • Samples
      • Testing of materials
      • Removal of water
      • Temporary water
      • Temporary lighting and power
      • Attendance
      • Hoardings, etc.
      • Works by public authorities
      • Temporary roads
      • Drying the building
      • Removal of rubbish
      • Defects after completion
      • Co-ordination of services
      • Building information modelling.

Piling

  1. Commencement level / commencing level:
    • Identify the commencement level of piling - existing ground level, level after general site levelling or bulk site formation, or bottom level of footing or basement excavation.
    • State the commencement level in the BQ - the commencement level may not always be the formation level as stipulated by the SMM.
  2. Usual items:
    • Mobilization and demobilization.
    • Trial piles.
    • Preformed portion (whole piles, linings only, driven or placed):
      • Supplying
      • Reinforcing if not described to be included in the supply
      • Driving
      • Dollying
      • Cutting
      • Withdrawal.
    • Cast in-situ portion (whole piles, fillings only, pre-boring):
      • Boring
      • Reinforcing
      • Casting
      • Cutting.
    • Heads, shoes.
    • Testing:
      • Before piling
      • During piling
      • After piling.
  3. Usual units:
    • Area for steel sheet piles or contiguous piles - Measure the area in plane (not developed) elevation along the centre line of steel sheet piles
    • Length for piles in isolated pieces
    • Length or number for extra over items or isolated items.
  4. Supplying preformed portion (including handling, transporting and pitching) :
    • Describe clearly the method of measurement of the area or length or number of supply
    • HKSMM4 or HKSMM4R does not specifically state how the length is to be measured to give the supply quantity of steel sheet piling or precast concrete piles
    • It only requires the "design length" to be stated, but does not say that this is the length to be measured for supply quantity
    • "design length" is defined by HKSMM4 or HKSMM4R as the length specifically required by the designer. However, the designer often does not specifically specify the design length. He usually only specifies the length below cut-off. It is therefore essential to define design length or describe the supply length measured, e.g. as driven length or length below cut-off, with or without allowance for extra length above the top
    • The supply length can in some cases be shorter than the driven length if the top is required to be driven below ground (dollying).
  5. Driving piles:
    • Measure from commencement level of driving to bottom level of driven pile.
  6. Corner piles, junction piles and other special piles to steel sheet piles:
    • Measure as extra over the supplying and driving items "respectively" of the steel steel piling into which they occur
    • Since the supply area may not be the same as the driven area, therefore, "respectively" should mean "separately" for supply items and driving items, or the description of the extra over items should be clear enough.

Excavation

  1. Commencement level / commencing level:
    • Identify and state the commencement level of excavation
    • Usually, the commencement level would be the existing ground level or the formation level whichever is the lower at a particular point.
    • Usually, "formation level" means the underside of the hardcore bed or blinding level of the lowest floor slab or external paving
    • Usually for a site to be "cut", i.e. formation level lower than existing ground level, the site would be formed to the formation level first, and foundations excavation would commence from the formation level
    • Usually for a site to be "filled", i.e. formation level higher than existing ground level, foundations excavation would commence from the existing ground level, backfilled and filled up to the formation level
    • "Usually" means that the definitions for specific projects should be defined and described in the BQ.
  2. Working space:
    • 0.25 m from the face of concrete requiring formwork where the formwork does not exceed 0.60 m in height
    • 0.60 m from the concrete requiring formwork where the formwork exceeds 0.60 m in height AND the bottom of the formwork exceeds 0.60 m below the commencement level of excavation
    • 0.60 m from the finished face of work below ground level where externally applied dampproof coverings or protection walls are required or where the method of construction requires workmen to operate from the outside (NOTE, "ground level" should mean that when the workmen go down to do the coverings or protection walls but this should be clarified in the BQ).
  3. Usual units:
    • Number for post holes not exceeding 0.30 m3
    • Length for trench excavation
    • Area for surface excavation not exceeding 0.20 m in average depth (HKSMM4 only. Volume measured as HKSMM4R)
    • Area for backfilling or filling not exceeding 0.30 m in total depth (HKSMM4 only. Volume measured as HKSMM4R)
    • Volume for other excavations, filling and disposal.
  4. Balancing:
    • Excavation = surplus disposal + backfilling
    • Import fill = filling to make up level - surplus disposal from excavation.

Concrete works

Drainage

  1. HKSMM4 only - When classifying drainage trench excavations by the total depth in stages of 1.50 m, with the average depth stated in multiples of 0.25 m, instead of taking the maximum total depth at the one end of the trench and measuring the whole length into that deepest stage, the length of the trench should be divided into different sections according to the total depth stages and the average depth taken for the different sections
  2. HKSMM4R only - Drainage trench excavations are classified by average depth only of each trench in stages of 0.25 m. Total depths no longer required.

Finishes and roofing

  1. Related items should be measured as a composite items before billing to ensure consistency in quantities. e.g. plaster and paint; tiling and screed; roofing tile, waterproof layer, insulation layer, screed, etc.
  2. Adjustments to be made for differences, e.g. bands, borders, channels, curbs, etc.

Swimming pool measurement checklist

  1. Excavation:
    • Excavation to reduce levels
    • Excavation for swimming pool
    • Backfilling
    • Disposal.
  2. Concrete:
    • Concrete blinding layer
    • Waterproof reinforced concrete in sides and bottom
    • Waterproof reinforced concrete angle fillet including formwork
    • Housing for scum channel.
  3. Formwork:
    • Formwork to sides of swimming pool
    • Formwork to soffit of suspended swimming pool
    • Opening for view panel.
  4. Reinforcement:
    • Steel bar reinforcement, stirrups, binders, etc.
  5. Waterproofing:
    • Waterproof membrane on sides and bottom of swimming pool.
  6. Finishes:
    • Waterproof cement and sand rendering on sides and bottom of swimming pool and behind scum channel
    • Tiling and waterproof screed on sides and bottom of swimming pool
    • Scum channel in tile
    • Steps in tile.
  7. Steel and metal works:
    • Cat ladder or step iron.
  8. Pipework:
    • Puddle flange connector
    • Water supply pipes
    • Water supply outlets
    • Drain pipes
    • Drain outlets.
  9. E&M works:
    • Filtration system and boiler.

Water tank measurement checklist

  1. Concrete:
    • Waterproof reinforced concrete
    • Waterproof reinforced concrete angle fillet including formwork
    • Reinforced concrete plinth.
  2. Formwork:
    • Formwork to sides and internal soffit of water tank
    • Left-in formwork to external soffit of water tank
    • Left-in formwork to form gap between walls
    • Formwork to concrete plinth
    • Boxing to form openings.
  3. Reinforcement:
    • Steel bar reinforcement, stirrups, binders, etc.
  4. Waterproofing:
    • Waterproof membrane/coating on top
    • Waterproof membrane/coating on internal sides and bottom.
  5. Finishes:
    • Waterproof cement and sand rendering to internal sides and bottom of non-potable water tank
    • Tiling and waterproof screed on internal sides and bottom of potable water tank
    • Finishes to top and external sides.
  6. Steel and metal works:
    • Cat ladder or step iron (inside & outside)
    • Trap door or cover.
  7. Pipework:
    • Puddle flange connector
    • Water supply pipe
    • Drain pipe
    • Overflow pipe
    • Air vent
    • Ball float valve.

Door measurement checklist

  1. Doors and frames:
    • Door leaf
    • Vision panel
    • Louvred panel
    • Door frame including bedding and pointing frames
    • Intumescent strip around fire rated doors
    • Architrave
    • Ground behind door frame.
  2. Ironmongery.
  3. Sundry metalwork:
    • Holdfast to door frame in brick and block wall
    • Anchor bolt to door frame in concrete wall
    • Floor dowels.
  4. Painting:
    • Painting to door leaf, door frame, architrave and ground.
  5. Sundry concrete:
    • Lintol
    • Wire mesh for lintol.

End of Page

Usual items in comprehensive building repair and maintenance works

Usual items in comprehensive building repair and maintenance works KCTang Mon, 23/03/2020 - 18:21

Go to End

Note

23 Mar 2020: Numeric numbering system adopted. Punctuation standardised.

16 Mar 2020: Created.

Preliminaries

  1. Site management.
  2. General labour.
  3. Statutory submissions (A&A, Minor Works, Registered Structural Engineers).
  4. Levies.
  5. Insurances (Contractors’ All Risks and Third Party, Employees’ Compensation).
  6. Bonds.
  7. Samples, documentary submissions and testing.
  8. Safety protection.
  9. Temporary facilities (hoardings, covered walkways, fencing, site offices, stores on or off site, plant, water, power and lighting, waste disposal).

Scaffolding

(all temporary, usually priced as part of the Preliminaries, but better separated because of its significant costs)

  1. Single layer scaffolding to wall.
  2. Double layer scaffolding to wall.
  3. Dust screen and tarpaulin sheets.
  4. Catch fan.
  5. Support brackets.
  6. Temporary rain shelters on top of scaffolding.
  7. Weatherproof spotlighting.
  8. Working platform for high level work.
  9. Safety signage.

Security

(all temporary, usually priced as part of the Preliminaries)

  1. Infrared detection.
  2. Motion sensor detection.
  3. CCTV system.
  4. Security guards and patrol.
  5. Dogs.
  6. Alarm system.
  7. Bells.
  8. Lighting, spot lighting, flood lighting.
  9. Hoardings.
  10. Barbed wire.
  11. Access control, smart card.
  12. Workers’ registration.
  13. Notifying police upon commencement of works.

Hoardings, covered walkways and fencing

(all temporary, usually priced as part of the Preliminaries)

Removal of existing

(in common areas)

  1. Unauthorized building structures.
  2. Asbestos containing objects.

Taking down and re-installing / reinstating as appropriate

  1. Drying racks.
  2. Air-conditioners and racks (window type, split type).
  3. Planter soil and plant.
  4. Temporary storage before re-installation.
  5. Pipe brackets.
  6. Signage (probably not heavy advertising frames).
  7. Banners.

Building façade

(external face of external walls, island and re-entraint lightwells, both sides of parapet walls, surfaces of bay windows, planter boxes, A/C hoods, fins, canopies, fence walls, etc.)

  1. Protection of windows, openings, air-conditioners not removed.
  2. Patch repair:
    • Hammer tapping test
    • Removal of debonding finishes
    • Repair of spalling concrete
    • Patch painting or complete painting
    • Patch tile repair or complete tile filler.
  3. Complete re-surfacing:
    • Hacking off of existing finishes
    • Temporary waterproof coating
    • Removal of abandoned nails and metal work and sealing up voids
    • Hammer tapping test or visual inspection
    • Repair of spalling concrete
    • Wire mesh over joints between concrete and brick and cracks
    • External plastering / waterproof rendering and painting (spatterdash coating, pre-packed bond coating, waterproof rendering)
    • Tiling and waterproof screeding (spatterdash coating, pre-packed bond coating, screeding, tile adhesive coating, tile joint grouting).
  4. Grouting and external sealant to windows.
  5. Movement joints in finishes (filler, backer rod, sealant).
  6. Pull-off test on plastering / rendering / tiling.
  7. Water spraying tests.
  8. Infra-red survey on completion (infra-red survey before the works should be part of the pre-tender activities.
  9. Warranties.

Finishes to roofs

(podium roof, top roof, top of watertanks and staircase heads, canopies, covered walkways)

  1. Patch repair (unlikely).
  2. Complete re-roofing:
    • Hacking off of existing finishes
    • Repair of spalling concrete
    • Roofing (levelling layer, waterproofing layer, insulation layer, finishing layer)
    • Skirtings and linings to channels and curbs (waterproofing layer, wire mesh reinforcing layer, finishing layer).
  3. Channel covers.
  4. Movement joints in finishes.
  5. Water ponding tests.
  6. Warranties.

Finishes to floors, ceilings and internal walls

(entrance lobbies, public corridors, typical lobbies, staircases, service rooms, plant rooms, lift machine rooms, lift pits, external covered spaces, carparks)

  1. Removal of existing:
    • Finishes
    • Abandoned features, conduits, wiring.
  2. Patch repair or complete re-surfacing similar to the Building Façade but not requiring waterproofing:
    • Floors
    • Staircase treads, risers, nosings, wall strings, raking skirtings, stepped skirtings, curb strings
    • Walls
    • Ceilings (in-situ finishes, false ceilings)
    • Planter boxes (waterproofed).

Windows

(to common areas)

  1. Samples, test certificates and shop drawings.
  2. Removal of existing.
  3. Windows (window frames, window sashes or casements, glazing and sealant, ironmongery (hinges, locks, stays), safety barrier rails, fire-rating, waterproof grouting and caulking).
  4. Window guards.
  5. Water spraying tests.
  6. Warranties.

Doors

(to common areas)

  1. Samples, test certificates and shop drawings.
  2. Removal of existing.
  3. Doors.
  4. Hose reel panels.
  5. Pipe door doors.
  6. Door frames.
  7. Ironmongery (hinges, locks, latches, bolts, panic bolts, door closers, floor springs, door stops, door catches, clothes hook, kick plates, push plates, pull handles).
  8. Metal work (holdfasts, floor dowels). 
  9. Fire-rating.

Water tanks

(potable water, flushing water, fire services water)

  1. Samples, test certificates and shop drawings.
  2. Temporary water tanks.
  3. Removal of existing.
  4. Waterproof finishes (internal bottoms, sides and soffits).
  5. Tank connectors, cat ladders, step irons, covers and frames.
  6. Water test.
  7. Warranties.

Other constructions and fittings

(to common areas)

  1. Movement joints in structure.
  2. Common entrance gates, roller shutters, fire shutters.
  3. Fencing,
  4. Balustrades, railings and handrails.
  5. Tactile paths.
  6. Cat ladders, step irons.
  7. Signage.
  8. Counters.
  9. Benches.
  10. Notice boards.
  11. Letter boxes.
  12. Exit signs.
  13. Fireproof enclosure to M&E services.

Water supplies

(before individual meters or to outside of flats if no meters)

  1. Samples, test certificates and installation drawings.
  2. Booster pump sets and electrical control.
  3. Water tank fittings (ball valves, drain pipes and valves, overflow drains, vent pipes).
  4. Upfeed and downfeed pipes (potable water, flushing water, fire services).
  5. Vent pipes.
  6. Pipe in-line fittings (bends, tees, pipe sleeves).
  7. Pipe brackets and base supports.
  8. Pipe ancillaries (gate valves, globe valves, non-return valves, air-release valves).
  9. Pipe sleeves and fire-caulking of openings.
  10. Meters.
  11. Painting and labelling.
  12. Testing and commissioning.
  13. As-built drawings.

Above-ground drainage

(commonly shared whether inside or outside flats)

  1. Samples, test certificates and installation drawings.
  2. Drain pipes (soil water, waste water, rainwater, A/C condensate, planter water).
  3. Vent pipes.
  4. Pipe in-line fittings (bends, junctions, rest bends, cleaning eyes).
  5. Pipe brackets and base supports.
  6. Pipe ancillaries (floor drains, rainwater outlets, gratings, P-traps, S-traps, fresh air inlets).
  7. Pipe sleeves and fire-caulking of openings.
  8. Painting and labelling.
  9. Testing and commissioning.
  10. As-built drawings.

Surface and underground drainage

(commonly shared)

  1. CCTV survey of underground drainage.
  2. Samples, test certificates and installation drawings.
  3. Surface water channels, outlets and covers.
  4. Manholes, petrol interceptors, grease interceptors.
  5. Pipe internal lining repair.
  6. Replacement:
    • Pipe trenches, beds and surrounds
    • Drain pipes (soil water, waste water, stormwater)
    • Vent pipes and fresh air inlets
    • Pipe fittings (bends, junctions, cleaning eyes).
  7. Painting and labelling.
  8. Testing and commissioning.
  9. As-built drawings.

Electrical services

(before individual flat meters)

  1. Final circuits (lighting points, power socket points, switch points).
  2. Lighting fittings.
  3. Emergency lighting fittings.
  4. Communal aerial broadcast system.
  5. Entrance access control.
  6. Carpark access control.

Fire services

(to common areas)

  1. Fire hose reels.
  2. Wet risers.
  3. Sprinklers.
  4. Fire hydrants.
  5. Fire detection and alarm system.
  6. Emergency exit signs (under other constructions and fittings).
  7. Emergency lighting (under electrical services).

Mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning services (MVAC)

(to common areas)

  1. Air-conditioners.
  2. Air curtains.
  3. Fans.
  4. Ventilation system.

Private items

(commissioned and paid by individual owners)

  1. Windows.
  2. Flat entrance doors.
  3. Flat entrance gates.
  4. Balcony railings and handrails.
  5. Water supply after meters.
  6. Internal drainage.
  7. Use of scaffolding and insurances.

End of Page

Measurement of Concrete Works

Measurement of Concrete Works KCTang Thu, 25/12/2014 - 23:09

Go to End

3 Aug 2019: Renamed "Measurement of Concrete Works" and incorporated HKSMM4 Revised 2018.

25 Dec 2014: Created under the name of "Standard Method of Quantifiable Modelling" intended to deal with BIM.

NOTE

  1. "HKSMM4" means Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works - Fourth Edition, 2005.

  2. "HKSMM4R" means Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works - Fourth Edition Revised 2018.

  3. "SMM" means HKSMM4 or HKSMM4R as the case may be.
  4. Item descriptions are listed here in elemental order showing levelled classification and required properties, preceded by some definitions and measurement rules, and followed by some supplementary rules in brackets.
  5. Sub-levels are indented, and are subject to higher level descriptions above them.
  6. Elements are shown in bold capitals. Work items are shown in bold.
  7. ";" is used to separate different properties which should be stated for a work item.
  8. Descriptions separated by “|” within a property are alternatives, with the default given first and deemed to apply if not otherwise stated, but properties specified as “stated” are mandatory. “|” if given in a new line is for clearer presentation only.
  9. "#" denotes deviations from SMM.
  10. "Cube", "Sup", "Run" and "Nr" respectively mean m3, m2, m and number.

GENERALLY

  • Rules
    1. Unless otherwise stated, measure all work net as fixed in its place.
    2. Deduct concrete from void > 0.05 m3 or opening > 0.10 m2.
    3. Deduct formwork from opening > 1.00 m2.
    4. Do not deduct formwork to structural walls, columns and beams intersected by end of abutting beams.
    5. HKSMM4 - Measure Super for formwork > 300 mm wide, otherwise measure Run (unless narrow width caused by openings), in width stages of 100 mm, i.e. 0 – 100 mm | 100 – 200 mm | 200 – 300 mm.
    6. HKSMM4R - Measure Super for formwork > 300 mm wide, otherwise measure Run.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure all concrete and formwork floor by floor between consecutive floor levels. 
    2. Group vertical rreinforcement bars passing through different floors into the main floor passed.
    3. Measure overall first and make adjustments later.
    4. Deal with the effects on various elements at the same time when adjusting for the junctions of walls, columns, beams and slabs because the dimensions at the junctions are common and can be shared.
    5. Measure as one composite item, sum up the total quantity, then generate component items and quantities from the total quantity, e.g. length first, generating secondary quantities of area and volume.
  • Coding
    1. Code to give suffiicient and self-explanatory information to represent different properties (parameters) of a composite item so that related secondary quantities can be generated from it.
    2. Use code segments to represent different properties and values.
    3. Code segments can be skipped for default properties.

MEASUREMENT OF CONCRETE WALLS

  • Legend

  • SMM Rules
    1. HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R Section VII (a) M.16 says, "Concrete walls are measured between columns or projections and up to the soffits of beams and slabs."
    2. HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R Section VII (a) M.12 says, "The measurement of suspended slabs is taken across columns and beams, except where the columns or beams are of a different mix." It does not mention walls.
    3. HKSMM4 and HKSMM4R Section VII (d) M.1 says, "Except where otherwise stated, formwork is measured to concrete surfaces of the finished structure which require support during casting."
    4. Wall concrete and formwork should therefore be measured as shown in Fig 1 to Fig 5 below.
    5. Formwork at junctions of walls with columns, beams and slabs (A below) is DEDUCTED because there is no formwork there.
    6. Wall concrete and formwork at junctions with beams crossing over the walls (B below) are DEDUCTED because there is no exemption rule.

  • Customary Deviations from SMM Rules for structural walls
  • Reasons for deviations
    1. In the case of structural walls, the beam in Fig 2 becomes a lintol beam, the beam in Fig 4 abuts the wall instead of crossing over the wall, and the columns become attached columns.
    2. Concrete in structural walls, attached columns and lintol beams are usually cast at the same time after the erection of the formwork as a whole.
    3. The problem with the above measurement is that the formwork at C above is measured as column or beam or slab formwork though it is on the same plane as the wall formwork and more like a wall formwork.
    4. Only the formwork at D above is more like a column formwork than a wall formwork.
    5. The combinations of the formwork at C and D to the four columns in Fig 1 are different.
    6. The rates for formwork for these different combinations should in theory not be the same.
    7. It should be more reasonable to design the formwork to the structural walls and attached columns if formed and cast at the same time as a complete system and estimate the cost and rate for the system as a whole.
    8. Post contract changes to the proportions of structural walls and attached columns are less frequent.
  • Deviations
    1. Wall concrete and formwork are therefore measured as shown in Fig 6 to Fig 10 below.
    2. Attached column and lintol beam concrete is grouped into structural wall concrete because they are of the same concrete grade cast at the same time.
    3. Structural wall concrete of a higher grade than slab concrete is measured through slab, otherwise to soffit of slab, following the principle of column and slab junctions.
    4. Formwork at junctions of walls with columns, beams and slabs (A below) is DEDUCTED because there is no formwork there.
    5. The abutting beam concrete (B below) stops at the near face of the structural wall. Following the principle of no deduction of column formwork at junctions with beams, wall formwork at this junction is NOT deducted.
    6. Formwork to attached columns (C and D) is measured as wall formwork.
    7. Formwork to sides of lintol beams and edges of slabs on the same plane as wall formwork (C below) is measured as wall formwork to the extent of the width of wall formwork.
    8. Formwork to sides and sofifits of projecting portions of lintol beams is measured separately and so described.
    9. When billing by elements instead of by materials, reinforcement in structural walls, attached columns and lintol beams is grouped together because they are often integrated making it difficult to separate them under the headings of "structural walls", "columns" and "beams".

  • Customary Deviations from SMM Rules for non-structural walls
  • Reasons for deviations
    1. Non-structural concrete walls can be cast when casting the columns, beams and slabs or cast afterwards.
    2. Measuring non-structural concrete walls as an integral part of the structure like measuring structural concrete walls with due deductions of formwork areas and grouping of formwork on the same plane would be a very time consuming exercise.
    3. The designed positions and choices of non-structural concrete walls can easily be changed, causing a repeat of the time consuming exercise.
  • Deviations
    1. For measurement purposes, non-structural concrete walls are deemed to be cast after casting the columns, beams and slabs.
    2. Formwork to columns, beams and slabs at junctions with walls (A below) is NOT deducted.
    3. Wall concrete and formwork at junctions with beams crossing over (B below) are DEDUCTED.
    4. Formwork to columns, beams and slabs on the same plane as wall formwork (C above) is NOT measured as the wall formwork.

STRUCTURAL WALLS

  • Rules
    1. Refer to those shown on structural framing plans.
    2. Include attached columns and lintol beams whose cross-sections project from structural walls. (#) 
    3. Include kickers.
    4. Include columns whose width > 4 x thickness.
    5. Measure the height of concrete and formwork from the base level of a wall to:
      1. top of slab above (i.e. wall measured through slab); or
      2. soffit of transfer structure (slab or beam) above; or
      3. open top of wall.
    6. Exclude concrete at junctions with slabs of same concrete grade (i.e. slab measured across wall).
    7. Exclude formwork intersected by slabs.
    8. Do not exclude formwork intersected by beam ends.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure wall by overall area along the centre line first
    2. Multiply the area by thickness to get concrete volume.
    3. Multiply the area by 2 to get formwork area.
    4. Deduct formwork intersected by slabs.
    5. Adjust for other items.
  • Coding example: WA-40/20-250-S2-F2 = A m2
    1. meaning structural wall : Grade 40/20 : 250 mm thick : sloping on two faces : F2 formwork = A m2.
    2. generating:
      • Reinforced concrete Grade 40/20 in: wall; 250 mm thick = A x 0.25 m3.
      • F2 formwork to: side of wall; sloping = A x 2 m2.
    3. "40/20W" can be used to mean watertight
    4. "S2-F2" can be omitted for default cases
    5. "S1" can be used to mean sloping on one face only.

Concrete;

  • normal | watertight | watertight with additive stated;
  • plain | plain vibrated | reinforced (deemed vibrated);
  • grade stated;

in:

  • Wall | Hangar wall:
    • normal | casing to structural steel work;
    • thickness stated
      • Cube

Formwork;

  • normal | to produce a formed finish, finish stated;
  • normal | left-in | permanent, kind and quality of materials and propping requirements stated;

to:

  • Side of wall (include side of attached column):
    • vertical | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated;
    • normal | on one face of wall only, wall thickness and background to other face stated
      • Sup
  • Side and soffit of lintol beam projection:
    • beam itself horizontal | sloping (i.e. on any face) | curved (i.e. on any face) | curved and sloping;
    • normal | on one face of wall only, wall thickness and background to other face stated
      • Sup
  • End of wall and end of lintol beam:
    • vertical | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Sloping top of wall exceeding 15° (if no adjoining slab) | Jambs and soffit of wall opening > 1.00 m2:
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Boxing for wall opening size 0.025 - 0.10 m2 | 0.10 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4) :
  • Boxing for wall opening size 0.50 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4R) :
    • wall thickness (stated)
      • Nr

COLUMNS

  • Rules
    1. Refer to isolated columns not attached to structural walls.
    2. Include kickers.
    3. Exclude columns whose width > 4 x thickness.
    4. Measure the height of concrete and formwork from the base level of a column to:
      1. top of slab above (i.e. column measured through slab); or
      2. soffit of transfer structure (slab or beam) above; or
      3. open top of column.
    5. Exclude concrete at junctions with slabs of same concrete grade (i.e. slab measured across column).
    6. Exclude formwork intersected by slabs
    7. Do not exclude formwork intersected by beam ends.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure overall column length of each type first.
    2. Multiply the length by the cross-sectional size to get the concrete volume
    3. Multiply the length by the girth to get the formwork area.
    4. Deduct concrete at junctions with slabs of same concrete grade (i.e. slab measured across column).
    5. Deduct formwork intersected by slabs.
    6. Adjust for other items.
  • Coding example: e.g. CL-40/20-400x600-F2 = L m2
    1. meaning column : RC Grade 40/20 : 400 x 600 mm : F2 formwork = L m2
    2. generating:
      • Reinforced concrete Grade 40/20 in: column = L x 0.40 x 0.60 m3.
      • F2 formwork to: side of column = L x (0.40 + 0.60) x 2 m2.
    3. "F2" can be omitted for default cases

Concrete;

  • normal | watertight | watertight with additive stated;
  • plain | plain vibrated | reinforced (deemed vibrated);
  • grade (stated);

in:

  • Column:
    • normal | casing to structural steel work (# special rules to be stated for voids of large hollow sections)
      • Cube

Formwork;

  • normal | to produce a formed finish, finish stated;
  • normal | left-in | permanent, kind and quality of materials and propping requirements stated;

to:

  • Side of column:
    • vertical | sloping | curved, radius stated | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Sloping top of column exceeding 15° (if no adjoining slab or beam):
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup

BEAMS

  • Rules
    1. Refer to those suspended.
    2. Exclude lintol beams to structural walls.
    3. Measure lengths of beam concrete or formwork up to near faces of supporting structural concrete members or cantilevered ends.
    4. Measure depths of upstand beam concrete or formwork below the soffits of slabs.
    5. Measure heights of upstand beam concrete or formwork above the tops of slabs.
    6. Measure full depths for beam concrete only if beam concrete is of higher concrete grade than slab concrete.
    7. Do not deduct formwork intersected by secondary beam ends.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure overall beam length of each type first.
    2. Multiply length by cross-sectional size to get concrete volume.
    3. Multiply length by girth of two sides and soffit to get formwork area.
    4. Deduct slab soffit formwork intersected by beam.
    5. Adjust for other items.
  • Coding example: BM-30/20-300x600-120-S-F2 = L m
    1. meaning Beam - RC Grade 30/20 - 300 x 600 mm designed size - 120 mm slab - sloping - F2 formwork = L m.
    2. generating:
      • Reinforced concrete Grade 30/20 in: beam; sloping = L x 0.30 x (0.60 – 0.12) m3.
      • F2 formwork to: sides and soffit of beam; sloping = L x (0.30 + (0.60 – 0.12) x 2) m2.
      • Beam soffit area for deduction from slab soffit, provided soffit height within the same stage = L x 0.30 m2.
    3. “-S-F2" can be omitted for default cases.
    4. "UB-30/20-300x600-120/200-S" can be used to mean upstand beam in 120 mm slab with 200 mm upstand.

Concrete;

  • normal | watertight | watertight with additive stated;
  • plain | plain vibrated | reinforced (deemed vibrated);
  • grade stated;

in:

  • Beam (i.e. downstand or upstand portion)|Isolated beam (i.e. without slab):
    • normal | casing to structural steel work (# special rules to be stated for voids of large hollow sections);
    • horizontal | top sloping ≤ 15° | top sloping > 15°
      • Cube
  • Extra for shoulder of higher grade (stated) at junction with walls and columns (HKSMM4 only. Not measured if HKSMM4R.)
    • Cube

Formwork;

  • normal | to produce a formed finish, finish stated;
  • normal | left-in | permanent, kind and quality of materials and propping requirements stated;

to:

  • Sides and soffit of beam (i.e. downstand portion, include slab edge or step in slab soffit flush with beam side) | Sides and soffit of isolated beam:
    • beam itself horizontal | sloping (i.e. on any face) | curved (i.e. on any face) | curved and sloping;
    • beam depth 0 – 750 mm below soffit of slab | > 750 mm below soffit of slab (HKSMM4 only);
    • beam depth 0 – 1.00 m below soffit of slab | > 1.00 m below soffit of slab (HKSMM4R);
    • soffit height 0 – 3.50 m above support below | > 3.50 m above support below, in stages of 1.50 m | special, e.g. above lift shaft, details stated
      • Sup
  • Sides of upstand beam (include slab edge or step in slab top flush with beam without downstand portion):
    • beam itself horizontal | sloping (i.e. on any face) | curved (i.e. on any face) | curved and sloping
      • Sup
  • End of beam (include slab edge) |Sloping top of beam exceeding 15° (if no adjoining slab):
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup

SLABS

  • Rules
    1. Refer to those suspended.
    2. Include landings at floor levels.
    3. Measure slab concrete across structural walls, columns and beams of lower or same concrete grade, otherwise measure between structural walls, columns and beams.
    4. Deduct formwork intersected by structural walls, columns and beams.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure each type of slab areas across structural walls, columns and beams first.
    2. Covert to concrete volume by multiplying the areas by respective slab thicknesses.
    3. Adopt the slab areas as the soffit formwork areas.
    4. Deduct concrete at junctions with structural walls or columns of higher concrete grade (preferably when measuring structural walls, columns and beams).
    5. Deduct formwork intersected by structural walls, columns and beams (preferably when measuring structural walls, columns and beams).
    6. Adjust for other items.
  • Coding example: SL-30/20-120-S-F2-H5.0 = A m2
    1. meaning Slab - R C Grade 30/20 - 120 mm thick - top sloping - F2 formwork - soffit height 3.50 - 5.00 m = A m2.
    2. generating:
      • Reinforced concrete Grade 30/20 in: slab; 120 mm thick; top sloping > 15° = A x 0.12 m3.
      • F2 formwork to: soffit of slab; 0 - 200 mm thick; sloping; soffit height 3.50 - 5.00 m = A x 2 m2.

Concrete;

  • normal | watertight | watertight with additive stated;
  • plain | plain vibrated | reinforced (deemed vibrated);
  • grade (stated);

in:

  • Slab | coffered and troughed slab (exclude volume occupied by moulds, measure margin >= 500 mm wide as slab):
    • thickness of slab stated | overall thickness of coffer and trough slab stated;
    • horizontal | top sloping ≤ 15° | top sloping > 15°
      • Cube
  • Extra for shoulder of higher grade (stated) at junction with walls and columns
    • Cube

Formwork;

  • normal | to produce a formed finish, finish stated | metal deck;
  • normal | left-in | permanent, kind and quality of materials and propping requirements stated;

to:

  • Soffit of slab:
    • slab thickness 0 – 200 mm | > 200 mm in stages of 100 mm;
    • horizontal | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated;
    • soffit height 0 – 3.50 m above support below | > 3.50 m above support below, in stages of 1.50 m | special, e.g. above lift shaft, details stated
      • Sup
  • Soffit of coffered and troughed slab (plane area measured):
    • overall thickness of coffer and trough slab stated, sizes of moulds and profile, centres of moulds stated;
    • horizontal | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated;
    • soffit height 0 – 3.50 m above support below | > 3.50 m above support below, in stages of 1.50 m | special, e.g. above lift shaft, details stated
      • Sup
  • Sloping top of slab exceeding 15°:
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Edge of slab | Step in top of slab | Step in soffit of slab (i.e. those not flush with side of beam):
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Boxing for slab opening size 0.025 - 0.10 m2 | 0.10 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4) :
  • Boxing for slab opening size 0.50 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4R) :
    • slab thickness (stated)
      • Nr

NON-STRUCTURAL WALLS (EXTERNAL WALLS AND INTERNAL WALLS KEPT SEPARATE)

  • Rules
    1. Refer to those shown on architectural plans but not on structural framing plans.
    2. Include kickers.
    3. Measure non-structural walls and features as if structural walls, columns and beams have been cast.
    4. Measure the concrete volume or formwork area bounded by slabs, beams, structural walls and columns.
    5. Exclude concrete volume or formwork area intersected by beams.
    6. Do not deduct formwork to slabs, beams, structural walls and columns intersected by non-structural walls as if the structural members are cast before casting the non-structural members. (#)
    7. Exclude formwork intersected by non-structural walls.
  • Measurement Approach
    1. Measure wall area along the centre line of each type first.
    2. Deduct from area junctions with beams.
    3. Multiply the area by thickness to get concrete volume.
    4. Multiply the area by 2 to get formwork area.
    5. Deduct formwork at T-junctions of non-structural walls.
    6. Adjust for other items.
  • Coding example: EW-20/20-120-S2-F2 = A m2
    1. meaning External wall - RC Grade 20/20 - 120 mm thick - sloping - F2 formwork = A m2.
    2. generating:
      • Reinforced concrete Grade 20/20 in: wall; 120 mm thick = A x 0.12 m3.
      • F2 formwork to: side of wall; sloping = A x 2 m2.
    3. Use "IW" for internal walls. 
    4. "20/20W" can be used to mean watertight.
    5. "-S2-F2" can be omitted for default cases.
    6. "-S1" can be used to mean sloping on one face only.

Concrete;

  • normal | watertight | watertight with additive stated;
  • plain | plain vibrated | reinforced (deemed vibrated);
  • grade stated;

in:

  • Wall | Hangar wall:
    • normal;
    • thickness stated
      • Cube

Formwork;

  • normal | to produce a formed finish, finish stated;
  • normal | left-in | permanent, kind and quality of materials and propping requirements stated;

to:

  • Side of wall:
    • vertical | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated;
    • normal | on one face of wall only, wall thickness and background to other face stated
      • Sup
  • End of wall:
    • vertical | sloping | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Sloping top of wall exceeding 15° (if no adjoining slab) | Jambs and soffit of wall opening > 1.00 m2:
    • straight | curved | curved in more than 1 direction, details stated
      • Sup
  • Boxing for wall opening size 0.025 - 0.10 m2 | 0.10 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4) :
  • Boxing for wall opening size 0.50 - 1.00 m2 in stages of 0.10 m2 (HKSMM4R) :
    • wall thickness (stated)
      • Nr

End of Page

After Billing

After Billing KCTang Tue, 24/03/2020 - 01:11

Go to End

Note

24 Mar 2020: Separate pages on Editing, Finalising, Pre-tender Estimate and Tender Addendum merged into here. Clearing Drawings, Specification and Preambles, and Bulk checking added.

26 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.

Editing by senior
编辑

  1. After a draft BQ has been prepared by the taking-off team, the draft BQ should be edited by the senior and experienced Surveyor who may be the team leader or a more senior Surveyor.
    排序计算好的汇总卡交由组长或项目主管编辑修改
  2. The editing is to ensure sufficiency of descriptions, consistency in style and reasonableness in classification, logic in sequence, and appropriateness in itemization and units.

Ensuring appropriate P.C. rates

  • The team leader or the editor should verify that the P.C. rates used are appropriate.

Corrections

  • After editing, corrections of the draft BQ should be made, and the corrected draft re-submitted for editing until satisfaction.

Typing
打印

  1. Traditionally, the draft BQ described up to this point is in written draft form, the draft BQ should then be sent to the typists for typing. However, with the use of Excel or quantity take-off software,  the draft BQ nowadays are usually typed by the taker-off when they take-off.
    编辑齐理好的汇总卡交往打印
  2. The type setting must follow a specified format.
    打印应按一定的格式排版

BQ production software

  • Apart from spreadsheet software, there is a number of BQ production software based on manual or CAD or BIM entry which can integrate the measurement and billing processes. However, the processes described for editing and thereafter are still indispensable.

Reading over
校对

  1. Typed BQ or corrected BQ should be proof-read against the written draft or previously marked typed draft.
    打字完毕要校对
  2. The old drafts should be lined through to indicate that they have been corrected and proof-read.
    汇总卡在校对时每卡垂直画线以资确认已打印

Clearing Drawings, Specification and Preambles

  1. All the team members should sit together to check the Drawings, Specification and Preambles to see whether there are overlaps or omissions.
  2. General discussions should be conducted to verify the mutual scope of measurement.
  3. Drawings, Specification and Preambles should be checked for complete colouring, lining through and looping to ensure no missing items.
  4. The set of BQ Drawings should be identified. Members should initial on the set of BQ Drawings to signify that they have measured what they should have measured.
  5. A list should be kept of errors found and follow-up actions should be done to rectify.
  6. The list of BQ Drawings so identified should be used to compile the Schedule of Tender Drawings.

Bulk-checking

  1. The quantities measured should be checked for serious errors. However, it would be impracticable to double check every measurement dimension. Furthermore, errors can arise in an unexpected manner in any stages of BQ production, e.g.:
    • During taking-off
    • During squaring
    • During transferring
    • During typing.
  1. Instead of checking the dimension sheets or taking-off schedules, it is better to check the quantities as stated in the typed draft BQ using independent but approximate methods.
  2. Quantities measured by a team member should be bulk-checked by another team member.
  3. A photocopy of the typed draft BQ should be used for bulk-checking.
  4. There are two modes of bulk-checking:
    • Carrying out relative check by ratios between related items
    • Carrying out absolute check by approximate measurement.
  5. If an item is correct by absolute check, then other related items which pass relative check based on the absolutely checked item can reasonably be believed to be correct.
  6. In case of discrepancies between the draft BQ quantities and the bulk-check quantities, the first step is for the bulk-checker and the Taker-off to sit together to discuss their mutual scope of measurement and check, their approaches and assumptions to find out reasons for the discrepancies.
  7. If the explanation is not satisfactory, further check into the quantities will be required. The draft BQ quantities and the bulk-check quantities can be broken down into smaller portions, e.g. floor by floor, for identification of the possible location and source of discrepancies. If, say, a particular floor is found to create the discrepancies, only that floor will be checked further.
  8. Apart from checking the quantities, the bulk-checkers should also check to ensure the proper descriptions and appropriate units are being used.

Timesing

  1. The first and the easiest and yet the most important check is to check the timesing.
  2. Timesing of a typical floor into the required number of floors and other similar timesing which have major multiplying effects should be carefully checked. The dimension sheets and taking-off schedules may be inspected for the timesing.
  3. Such check can usually avoid very serious errors.

Bulk-check formulae for concrete works, plastering, painting and roofing

  1. To carry out relative check, the relationship between different parts of the Works should be thought out and used for counter-check.
  2. The following are some formulae or equations for checking:
    • Total covered floor area
      >          total concrete slab area
      >          total floor finishes etc.
    • Total covered floor area
      ≈  Total concrete slab area + voids + lift shafts + staircases
    • Base area of non-structural concrete walls and brickwalls
      ≈  (Concrete cube + brick area x thickness + window area x thickness of wall) ¸ general storey height
    • Total concrete slab area
      ≈  Total floor finishes area + base area of non-structural concrete walls and brickwalls
    • Total beam and slab formwork area > total ceiling finishes
    • Total ground area =  total roofing area + base area of parapets
    • Total formwork area + 2 x brickwork (except those without finishes)
      ≈ total ceiling finishes + total wall finishes + total skirting area + internal sides of lift shafts + wall and beam sides above false ceilings
    • Formwork to sloping soffit of staircase = finishes to sloping ceiling
    • Length of nosing = length of risers (measure length of nosing on plan if nosing is not provided to all staircases)
    • Formwork to riser = finishes to riser
    • Plan area of treads = finishes to tread + nosing area
    • Tile = screed area
    • Plaster = paint area
    • Etc.
  3. Apart from its basic purpose, bulk-checking is also a useful process for training Surveyors to appreciate the relationship between different parts of the Works. Such appreciation would be useful for cost estimating.

Floor by floor analysis

  • It would be useful to breakdown the quantities floor by floor so see whether there is relative consistency between the floor by floor quantities.

Bulk-checking concrete works

  1. A master schedule should be prepared to show the quantities of concrete, formwork and reinforcement broken down into elements of columns, walls, beams, slabs, etc. on a floor by floor basis.
  2. Ratios in the following forms should be calculated:
    • concrete cube per floor area
    • formwork area per floor area
    • reinforcement weight per floor area
    • formwork area per concrete cube
    • reinforcement weight per concrete cube
    • etc.
  3. The ratios should be checked for consistency and reasonableness of variances between different elements and floors.
  4. It would not be practicable to check all reinforcement measurement in detail. Reinforcement is usually checked by:
    • taking-off samples of concrete elements to obtain steel ratios to check against the steel ratios in the master schedule
    • comparing with past similar projects to check the reasonableness of the steel ratios.

Comparing with estimate

  • The bulk quantities in the draft BQ can be compared with the quantities in Preliminary Cost Estimate to see whether there are major deviations.

Adjustments

  1. Adjustments should also be made to complete measurement of missing items found when clearing Drawings, Specification and Preambles.
  2. Corrections should be made to rectify errors found in bulk-checking.
  3. Any changes to the draft BQ should be made using different coloured pencils so that the changes can be apparent.
  4. If changes are made directly on computer, either the results of the changes should be marked on the typed draft BQ used for bulk-checking or identifications should be made on the re-printed draft BQ.
  5. Any changes to the draft BQ should be seen by the bulk-checkers.
  6. If the bulk-checkers are satisfied with the accuracy of the BQ descriptions, units and quantities, they should initial against the quantities to signify acceptance.
  7. When all items have been initialled by the bulk-checkers, the bulk-checking process is finished.

Final editing

  1. After making corrections and having them bulk-checked as well, the marked typed draft or re-printed draft with changes highlighted should be submitted to the editor again for final editing.
  2. If further changes are required, the preceding changes should be repeated.

Final typing corrections

  • Finally edited and corrected written drafts can be submitted to typing corrections and reading over

Reading quantities

  1. For manual measurement requiring transfer of quantities from bundles of dimension sheets to the written draft BQ, the quantities as typed on the final typed BQ should be compared with the quantities on the dimension sheets to ensure that all measured quantities are actually reflected in the final typed BQ. There may be chances that additional measurements have been made after the original written draft BQ, but they are forgotten to be reflected in the final draft and they have escaped the attention of bulk-checkers.
  2. To avoid fatigue, usually two persons are involved in reading quantities, with one reading out the quantities on one document and the other verifying the quantities on the other document.
  3. The units should also be read out as well to ensure that the correct units are typed.
  4. This process can be skipped if QTO software is used.

Contents sheet and thickness of documents

  1. Systematic page numbering should be adopted. Page numbers of various sections of the Tender Documents should be prefixed for easy identification purposes, for example, "PL" for Specification Preliminaries and "TS" for Technical Specification.
  2. The contents page should be compiled. Too thick a document may require to be split into two or more volumes and the covers should have volume number.

Photocopying
复印

  • After final correction, the typed BQ can be submitted to photocopying.
    最后修改完成唱读无误后,可复印工程量清单

Page checking
检查页数

  1. Checking should be done after photocopying to ensure no duplicate, missing, indistinct or defaced pages before binding.
    ​复印后要检查复印有没有问题才可以钉装:多、漏、不清、弄坏
  2. Random check can be done for highest quality service, otherwise full check should be done.
    高质数的复印可抽样检查,否则应全检
  3. Out-sourced printing companies may not check every page.
  4. In any case, the team leader should carry out random check on at least one sample.

Binding
钉装

  • After page checking, the Tender Documents can be bound and dispatched to the Architects who would issue invitation letters to Tenderers to collect the Tender Documents for tendering.

Pre-tender Estimate

  1. As soon as the final BQ is ready and even before its dispatch to Tenderers, it would be a good practice and it may be a condition of service as well that the final BQ is priced to arrive at the expected tender price. The in-house priced BQ is called "Pre-tender Estimate" which is useful for:

    • early identification of any major deviation from the previous Preliminary Cost Estimate
    • comparison with prices returned by Tenderers.
  2. If major deviation between the Pre-tender Estimate and the previous Preliminary Cost Estimate is found, the reason should be identified. Care should be exercised to see whether it is due to errors in the BQ or errors in the previous Preliminary Cost Estimate, or due to design changes introduced after the previous Preliminary Cost Estimate. Errors in the BQ should be immediately corrected. Early notice to the Client should be made for major and true deviations between the Preliminary Cost Estimate and the Pre-tender Estimate.

Tender Addendum 修改通知

  1. It is very usual that tender addenda are required after dispatch of Tender Documents for tendering because of the need:
    • to rectify errors found
    • to complete outstanding measurement because of previous lack of information
    • to update for lately revised Drawings or Specification.
  2. All the processes for producing the original BQ should be followed for making tender addenda.
  3. Amended or additional pages should have identifications such as:
    • Using an asterisk "*" against the right hand side of the page number
    • Using two or more asterisks or alternative symbols to signify the second or subsequent addenda
    • Using the words "Tender Addendum No. X" at the top or bottom of the pages
    • Using symbol against the left or right hand side or using other forms of highlighting to indicate amended or added BQ items.
  4. Some people use page number designated something like 3.2/1+1 or 3.2/1A to denote an additional page.

 

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