Overview 概论

Overview 概论 KCTang Mon, 16/03/2020 - 16:31

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  • 16 Mar 2020: Revised.
  • 20 Dec 2014: Moved from wiki.


  1. “the Works” (with capitalized “W” and “s”) – the whole of all work items under a construction contract.
  2. work” – an item of work or service under a construction contract.
  3. “the Drawings” and “the Specification” (without “s”) are used in the usual Standard Forms of Contract.

Purpose of Tender Documentation

  1. To convey clearly to the tenderers what are to be required to be done during tendering and after the award of the contract such that the awarded contract sum is sufficient for the Contractor to finish the job as expected without unexpected claims
    • complete
    • free of ambiguity
    • free of discrepancy
    • full disclosure and warning of matters which may affect the prices and time
  2. To provide for a full set of terms and conditions ready for turning into a contract without loose ends
  3. To afford provisions to deal with changes

Tender Documents

  1. Broader meaning
    • The complete set of documents issued for tendering, including Tender Drawings
  2. Narrower meaning
    • Documents issued for tendering, other than Tender Drawings

Generic Composition of Tender Documents

  1. Conditions of Tendering / Conditions of Tender / Instructions to Tenderers 
    投標條件 / 投標條件 / 投標須知:
    • to describe rules and procedures to be followed during tendering. 
  2. Form of Tender 
    • for the Tenderer to state his offer
  3. Form of Contract
    • to desribe terms and conditions to be followed when peforming the Contract;
    • may refer to some Standard Forms of Contract, and not actually include a copy in the Tender Documents; and
    • where a Standard Form of Contract is used, the Tender Documents should include any amendments or special conditions to the standard.
  4. Tender Drawings
    • to show the location, disposition, design (shape, form, sizes, configuration, fixing) of the work and choice of materials and workmanship.
  5. Specification or Employer's Requirements or Brief
    • to specify the work, materials, method, workmanship, submission, testing and inspection standards required for the work.
    • may include a section on Preliminaries or General Requirements, and other sections on materials and workmanship, those other sections are collectively called "Technical Specification" "技術要求";
    • may refer to some Standard Specification, and have Particular Specifications to describe deviations from or supplements to the standard; and
    • may use a General Specification, and have Particular Specifications to describe deviations from or supplements to the general.
  6. Pricing Schedules
    • for the Tenderer to give a detailed build-up of his tender sum in any of the following forms:
      • Bills of Quantities
      • Summary of Tender;
      • Schedule of Rates or Schedule of Quantities and Rates;
      • Schedule of Works; and
      • Quotation.

    Tender Booklet

    1. It is better to call those parts of the Tender Documents excluding Tender Drawings as "Tender Booklet" because these documents are usually bound into a booklet.
    2. Tender Documents = Tender Booklet + Tender Drawings.

    Typical Contents of Tender Booklet

    1. Conditions of Tendering / Conditions of Tender / Instructions to Tenderers.
    2. Form of Tender with various kinds of appendices.
    3. Appendices to the Form of Tender (if not included in or appended to the Specification or Preliminaries):
      • Pro-forma Surety Bond;
      • Form of Warranty (for Sub-Contracts);
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Immigration Ordinance (Cap. 115) for last <> years;
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59) for last <> years;
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Employment Ordinance (Cap. 57) for last <> years;
      • Statement of involvement in arbitration or litigation in the last <> years or foreseeable in the next <> months;
      • Declaration of no conflict of interests; and
      • Declaration of no collusion.
    4. Amendments to the Standard Form of Main Contract / Special Conditions of Contract.
    5. Amendments to the Standard Form of Sub-Contract / Special Conditions of Sub-Contract.
    6. Specification
      • Preliminaries (if not included as Bill No. 1 in full);
      • Technical Specification
        • General Specification;
        • Particular Specification; and
      • Technical Schedules.
    7. Preambles to Bills of Quantities (if not included as Bill No. 2).
    8. Bills of Quantities:
      • Bill No. 1 – Preliminaries (full descriptions or headings only);
      • Bill No. 2 – Preambles;
      • Bill No. 3 onwards - Measured Works Sections;
      • Prime Cost and Provisional Sums;
      • Dayworks Schedule or Daywork Rates Schedule;
      • General Summary.
    9. Schedule of Rates or Schedule of Quantities and Rates (if without Bills of Quantities).
    10. Summary of Tender (if without Bills of Quantities).
    11. Schedule of Drawings.
    12. Appendices (references to these Appendices should be given in the appropriate parts of the Tender Documents):
      • Insurance policies taken out by the Employer;
      • Property Management’s house-rules (if not already described in the Specification and Preliminaries); and
      • Main Contractor’s house-rules (for Sub-Contract tendering).

    Contract Specific Contractual Provisions (other than the Usual Standard Provisions)

    1. Names of the Employer and Consultants
    2. Site locations, site restrictions, permissible working hours
    3. Liability for ground conditions and underground obstructions
    4. Scope of the Works, nominated sub-contracts and supply contracts, specialist domestic sub-contracts, previous contracts, concurrent contracts, works by public authorities, demarcation, relationship, co-ordination and attendance
    5. Scope of contractors’ design, statutory submissions, maintenance and warranties
    6. Time for possession, entry, commencement, completion; allowances for anticipated delays; criteria for certifying completion
    7. Damages for delay; qualifications by sub-contractors on the level of damages
    8. Defects liability period, maintenance period
    9. Form of Main Contract and Sub-Contracts to be used; special conditions
    10. Excusable events and compensable events
    11. Payment terms, advance payment, deposit payment, period of interim certificates, grace period for honouring payments, retention percentages, maximum retention, time to release retention
    12. Drawings and Specification to be used
    13. Pricing basis, with or without bills of quantities, lump sum or remeasurement
    14. Any adjustments for cost fluctuations
    15. Liability for insurance of the Works, third party, employees, construction plant and temporary buildings; limits of indemnity; levels of excesses / deductibles
    16. Amount of surety bond
    17. Phasing requirements and consequential effects on completion certificate, damages for delay, retention, defects liability, maintenance obligations, insurances, bond, etc.
    18. Specific requirements on hoardings, Employer’s site office
    19. Responsibilities for source and consumption of temporary water, lighting and power

    Reading drawings and specifications

    1. For tender pricing, both the Drawings and the Specification must be read together in order to measure the quantities and estimate the unit rates.
    2. For work on existing buildings, the Drawings may not be able to represent fully and accurately the dimensions on site and the Tender Documents usually require the Tenderers to price taking into account the site conditions.
    3. The existing site (and building) conditions may also cause difficulties and inconvenience to the carrying out of the Works requiring extra costs to overcome.
    4.  Therefore, the Drawings and the Specification must also be read in conjunction with the existing conditions on site to make allowance in the quantities and/or unit rates.
    5. It is usually specified in the Tender Documents that the Drawings and the Specification are complementary to which other and shall be read as a whole. However, there can still be cases where there are irreconcilable discrepancies (i.e. contradictions) between them that their order of precedence (i.e. which overrides which, which takes precedence over which) would need to be known.
    6. In the Standard Form of Building Contract Private Editions before 2015, the Specification takes precedence over the Drawings. However, the precedence has been reversed in the 2005 and 2006 Editions. Some Consultants reverse it back. Therefore, the order of precedence is not an industry standard and has to be determined according to the individual contract.
    7. Drawings usually contain a lot of specification notes. For submissions to the Building Authority, the Specification is not required, all the requirements will be written as notes on the BD Submission Drawings, which may be used as the Tender Drawings.

    Considerations when dealing with Drawings

    1. How detailed should the Tender Drawings be when the design is to be further developed by the Contractor? The significance of being too detailed or too vague.
    2. Distinguish between:
      • Drawings actually issued to tenderers
      • Drawings available for inspection
      • Standard Drawings
      • BQ (Taking-off) Drawings
      • Tender Drawings
      • Preliminary design drawings to be submitted by the tenderers
      • Contract Drawings
      • Shop Drawings
      • Installation Drawings
      • Field Drawings
      • Working Drawings / Construction Drawings
      • AI Drawings
      • As-built Drawings / Record Drawings
    3. How to manage these drawings to avoid discrepancies

    Usual Deficiencies in Tender Documentation

    1. Incomplete design
    2. Inconsistent terminology
    3. Discrepancies
    4. Conflicts
    5. Imprecise descriptions
    6. Errors and omissions
    7. Too complicated specifications
    8. Not procurable
    9. Outdated provisions
    10. Insufficient ground investigation
    11. Government approval and consent not in time

    Usual Deficiencies in Tender Drawings generally

    1. Insufficient drawings
    2. Insufficient details
    3. Insufficient dimensions
    4. Terms used on drawings not matching specifications
    5. Specifying proprietary brand names and model numbers without the client's consent

    Usual Deficiencies in Tender Drawings for Alteration and Addition Works

    1. Consultants focusing on beautiful perspective only to obtain client's consent
    2. Existing site and building's BD drawings not retrieved for use
    3. Existing site and building's BD drawings issued for use not of the original scale (usually reduced)
    4. Existing site and building's BD drawings in imperial units
    5. Existing site and building's BD drawings blurred because of scanning
    6. Actual site construction deviating from the approved BD drawings
    7. Extent and boundary of work items not sufficiently marked on drawings
    8. No plumbing and drainage drawings prepared, only relying on marking on site photos or retrieved BD submission drawings
    9. No design details
    10. Details without dimensions
    11. Terms used on drawings not matching specifications

    Usual Deficiencies in Specification

    1. Terms used not consistent with those used in the Conditions of Contract, e.g. Architect vs Supervising Officer vs Contract Administrator, Main Contractor vs Contractor vs Sub-Contractor, Practical Completion vs Substantial Completion, Certificate of Completion of Making Good Defects vs Defects Rectification Certificate
    2. Job and contract title not matching the rest of the Tender Documents.
    3. Page header and footing not coordinated with the rest of the Tender Documents. 
    4. Provisions in the Particular Specification not coordinated with the provisions in the General Specification
    5. Repeating but inconsistent provisions in different parts of the specifications
    6. Insufficient provisions or overly huge specifications
    7. Provisions not tailored to suit the project
    8. Provided very late

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