Tender Invitation 招标

Selection of Tenderers

  1. Open tendering:
    • Invitation through newspaper advertising
    • Invitation through gazette notice with restrictions to approved list of tenderers
    • Invitation through web portal
    • Expression of interest and pre-qualification of tenderers required if tenderers are not invited from an approved list
  2. Selective tendering:
    • From an approved list
    • Suggested by the Project Team
    • Pre-qualification of tenderers required if tenderers are not familiar to the Project Team or the nature of the Works is special to the criteria for the approved list
    • Expression of interest required to see whether the tenderers are willing and able to tender
    • Invitation by letter
  3. Negotiation with a single tenderer:
    • Based on past project relationship and prices
  4. Avoidance of collusion
  5. Balance between transparency and confidentiality

Expression of Interest and Pre-qualification of Tenderers

  1. Purposes:
    • Permit only those qualified to tender
    • Avoid incompetent tenderers submitting lowest tenders
  2. Possible contents of a letter requesting for expression of interest:
    • Information to prospective tenderers:
      • Scope of the Project
      • Scope of the Works to be tendered for
      • Particulars of the Client and Employer for the project
      • Particulars of Architect, Engineers, AP, RSE, Quantity Surveyor
      • Type of contract:
        • Lump sum or remeasurement
        • With or without Bills of Quantities, or with standard schedule of rates
        • With or without fluctuation clause
      • Payment terms
      • Expected date for issuance of tender documents
      • Tendering period
      • Construction programme
    • General company information required to be submitted:
      • Descriptions on past and current experience in similar works, together with a job reference list
      • Current and anticipated work load for the coming 12 months
      • Experience in working on restricted areas similar to the proposed site
      • Business registration certificate
      • Certificate of incorporation, if a company
      • Contractor’s registration certificates
      • Audited accounts for the last <> years (strict confidence to be observed by the Client and the Consultants)
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Immigration Ordinance (Cap. 115) for last <> years
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Cap. 59) for last <> years
      • Statement of all convictions or no convictions under the Employment Ordinance (Cap. 57) for last <> years
      • Statement of involvement in arbitration or litigation in the last <> years or foreseeable in the next <> months
  3. Project specific information required to be submitted:
    • CV of key professional or technical staff which are capable of undertaking the Works and may be assigned to the Works
    • Details of the fabrication yards which may be used for the Works
    • Financial capability to adopt the payment terms mentioned above
    • Estimation of the delivery and installation periods required for the Works
    • If an alternative tender based on Contractor’s design is considered:
      • Descriptions of past experience and capability in undertaking the design work
      • Names of the prospective designers
      • Preferred tendering period
    • Time and mode of submission
    • Client is not bound to invite any contractors who have expressed interest to tender
    • Contact person in case of queries

Selection Criteria

  1. Technical and financial capability of the company
  2. Technical capability of the proposed project staff
  3. Past experience
  4. Track records
  5. Safety records
  6. Non-compliance records
  7. Current workload
  8. Claims history (not apparent from the pre-qualification submissions)
  9. Scoring by:
    • Qualitative judgment
    • Marking scheme

Invitation Letter

  1. Confidential list of tenderers
  2. Invitation letter to be marked "CONFIDENTIAL"
  3. Description of the Works
  4. Documents and drawings issued
  5. Place and time for collection of documents and drawings
  6. Arrangement for tender deposit and tender bond
  7. Arrangement for tender briefing and site walk
  8. Time and mode of submission
  9. Tender submissions to be in sealed envelope marked "CONFIDENTIAL"
  10. Specified tender label or envelope for submission
  11. Contact person in case of queries
  12. Terms and conditions intended to form part of the Contract should be given in the Tender Documents rather than in the Invitation Letter

Tender Documents issued

  1. Tender Booklet
  2. One set of drawings as listed or referred to in the Schedule of Drawings
  3. One duplicate copy of the Tender Booklet for retention by the Tenderer (really essential?)
  4. One duplicate copy of the Form of Tender (really essential?)
  5. Electronic documents (precedence against hardcopies)


  1. Tender Drawings comprising:
    • Drawings actually issued to tenderers
    • Drawings available for inspection
    • Standard Drawings referred to in the Specification or other Tender Drawings
  2. Theoretically, BQ (Taking-off) Drawings = Tender Drawings = Contract Drawings
  3. How to manage these drawings to avoid discrepancies
  4. Generally, preliminary design drawings submitted by the tenderers to be for reference only

Collecting Tender Documents 领取招标文件

Tender Deposit 投标工本押金

Tender Bond 投标担保书

Inspection of Tender Documents 检查招标文件

Tender Briefing and Site Walk 交底会及现场踏察

  1. Joint meeting or separate meeting
  2. Confidentiality, convenience and trust
  3. Introduction to tenderers
  4. Tenderers to raise queries and problems

Answering Queries 提问答疑处理

  1. Re-phrasing into common answers to all tenderers
  2. Issued as Tender Clarification Letters or Tender Addenda

Issuing Tender Addenda 修改通知

  1. Revisions may be required after issuing the Tender Documents because:
    • The Tender Drawings or Specification has been changed
    • The Bills of Quantities have not really been completed yet
    • Errors have been discovered
  2. Latest time for issuing Tender Addenda
  3. Revised or additional pages to be marked and labelled as follows: 
    • Marking with "*" against the page number to indicate first revision, with "**" to indicate second revision
    • Labelling at the page header or footer with "Tender Addendum No. 1"
      ​在页首或页尾加 "投标修改通知1" 的字样
  4. Highlighting of changes
  5. Different dates and filenames on different pages to be avoided for documents
  6. Date stamping required for Tender Drawings which do not usually have a corresponding revision version number
  7. Covering letter:
    • Letter to be marked "CONFIDENTIAL"
    • Amended or additional documents and drawings issued
    • Description of the changes and instructions to make the changes (either in the letter or in an appendix)
      • Pages or sheets to be replaced, added or deleted
      • Clarification statements
    • Place and time for collection of documents and drawings
    • Any change to the tender return deadline
    • Other terms and conditions remain unchanged
    • Contact person in case of queries
    • Acknowledgement of receipt by couriers
    • Confirmation of incorporation of tender addenda by tenderers