Tender Drawings 招标图纸

Types of drawings according to their contents
按內容分的图纸类型

  1. Site location plan
    工地位置图
  2. Site survey plans
    现场勘测图
  3. Architectural plans
    建筑平面图
  4. Architectural elevations and sections
    建筑立面剖面图
  5. Architectural detailed drawings
    建筑大样图
  6. Structural plans
    结构平面图
  7. Structural detailed drawings
    结构大样图
  8. M&E plans
    机电平面图
  9. M&E schematic drawings
    机电系统图
  10. M&E detailed drawings
    机电大样图
  11. etc.

Management of Tender Drawings
招标图纸的管理

  1. Characteristics of issuing drawings:
    出图特性:
    • Drawings are usually not issued in one batch
      未必一次出齐
    • Revised Drawings are usually issued during the course of taking-off
      可能出了又改
    • Revised Drawings are usually not given a revision number during the pre-contract stage
      修订编号不变
    • Therefore, a system should be implemented for identification of Drawings
      ​所以需要一个分辨图纸的制度
  2. Upon receipt of drawings: 
    收到图纸:
    • Check whether they are complete according to the covering letter
      应检查是否按函件收齐
    • Chase for omitted drawings
      追补缺漏
    • Stamp drawings received with a date-received chop
      必须盖日期章以资识别
    • Register the drawings to facilitate following-up
      并予以登记,方便追踪
    • Dispatch to the relevant team members after registration
      登记后发给有关的组员

Sufficiency of Drawings 图纸的齐全性

  • Upon receipt, Drawings should be checked to see whether they are sufficient for the purposes. If there are insufficient Drawings or details, the Architects and Engineers shall be liaised with to pursue the outstanding Drawings
    组员收到图纸,检查内容是否基本齐全,有何变化,追补缺漏

Drawing Register 图纸登记录

  1. A Drawing Register should be set up to record the Drawings received
    应用图纸登记录来登记收到的图纸
  2. The format of the Drawing Register can be as follows: 
    图纸登记录的格式可以如下:
  3. During the course of taking-off, Surveyors should check that they are using the latest versions of Drawings
    编标时,应常常检查是否使用最新的图纸
  4. The Drawing Register is useful for tracking revised drawings for use. If drawings are provided late, measures should be taken to resolve the issue
    图纸登记录有理于追踪使用新修订图纸。若修订图纸过迟,要提出处理办法解决问题
  5. The Drawing Register may be adapted as the Schedule of Drawings to be included in the Tender Documents
    图纸登记录将来可套用为招标文件中的图纸目录
  6. The Drawing Register may also be used for the management of drawings in the construction stage
    图纸登记录亦可用于施工阶段的图纸管理

Using dimensions shown on Drawings
使用图示尺寸

  1. Dimensions shown on Drawings are preferred to those measured by scaling
    应使用图示尺寸计量,而不是用比例尺
  2. With Drawings drawn by hand without using CAD, it may be possible that the draftsman makes the last minute change to the dimensions without changing the drawn sizes
    不用CAD的手工绘图,绘图员可能在最后一刻随便改了标示尺寸,而不改图像
  3. Before using dimensions shown, some check should be done to verify the correctness of the dimensions shown: 
    应复核图示尺寸是否有矛盾,例如:
    • Overall dimensions should be checked to see that the running dimensions add up to the overall dimensions
      总尺寸与分尺寸不符
    • The same objects have different dimensions on different drawings
      同一物体在不同图纸被标示不同尺寸
  4. Scale rule should be used to check the overall or critical dimensions
    应用比例尺来核对图示尺寸

Using correct scale rule
比例尺的使用

  1. Scale rule may be used when: 
    可用比例尺的时候:
    • Counter-checking the dimensions
      核对图示尺寸
    • Dimensions are insufficient
      尺寸标示不足
    • The shape is complex without adequate dimensions
      图形复杂,没有图示尺寸
    • The unit rate for a work item is low with minor cost implication in case of some tolerance in measurement
      有关项目的单价很低,计量误差影响不大
    • Bulking checking
      框算复核
  2. When using scale rule: 
    使用比例尺时:
    • The correct scale rule same as the true scale of the Drawings should be used. For example, use 1:100 scale rule for 1:100 scale Drawings, and do not use 1:50 scale rule
      用相等于图纸标示比例的比例尺直取尺寸, 例如用1:100的尺量1:100的图,不要用1:50的尺
    • Do not convert from other scale rules
      不要用其他的比例尺换算
  3. The overall or critical dimensions on Drawings should be checked to ensure that there is no enlargement, reduction or distortion in either direction to the scale stated
    要与图示的总尺寸或关键尺寸复核,看看有没有与标示尺寸不符的放大、缩少、扭曲(传真收到的图纸特别要留意)
  4. In special circumstances where the matching scale rule is not available, conversion from the dimensions measured to the actual dimensions represented must be done; 
    真的因没有适当的比例尺或因图纸变形而需换算的,要把量出来的换算到真的尺寸;
    • Care should be exercised to double check the conversion factors used
      要小心复核换算率才使用
    • For example, when using 1:100 scale rule to measure 1:200 Drawings, all readings on the scale rule should be multiplied by 2 to obtain the actual measurement
      1:100比例尺量1:200 图纸时,读数要x2
    • It should also be noted seriously that the multiplying factor to obtain the area is 2 x 2 = 4
      计面积时,若按1:100读数先计面积才转换,要小心换算率乃2 x 2 = 4
    • The conversion factor for scaled area measurement is the square of the conversion factor for scaled lineal measurement
      平面换算率是直尺换算率的2次方
    • The conversion factor for scaled volume measurement is the cube of the conversion factor for scaled lineal measurement
      立方换算率是直尺换算率的3次方

Using accurately calibrated measurement instruments
使用调较准的计算仪器

  1. Other measurement instruments may also be used: 
    除比例尺外,计算仪器还有:
    • Curvimeter: a mechanical or digital instrument with a wheel for measuring lengths (some stationery stores may still have this on sale)
      曲线计:用滚轮在图上走动便可量出延长尺寸
    • Planimeter: an instrument with a number of arms for measuring areas (it may be difficult to find it now on sale)
      求积仪:用机械支架承托的针,在图上走动一圈便可量出面积
    • Digitiser: an electronic tablet with a pen for measuring lengths and areas (this is available from some computer hardware stores); a PC computer equipped with digitising software is required for use
      数位板:绘图用的电子板,附有笔,驳上电算机及软件,在图上走动便可量出延长尺寸或面积
    • CAD software: for measuring the numbers, girths and areas directly from the CAD drawings
      绘图软件:直接从图纸电子版读出个数、周长及面积
  2. Every time before using these electronic or mechanical instruments: 
    机械或电子仪器每次使用前:
    • The scale should be set to the same scale as the drawing
      要调较至图纸的比例
    • The accuracy should be verified
      要复核精确度
    • When conversion is unavoidable, calculate the conversion factor carefully
      读数需要换算时,小心测算换算率

Colouring Drawings
图纸涂颜色

  1. To signify that things on Drawings have been measured:
    为表示图示物体已计算了:
    • Parts of the Drawings should be coloured as and when those parts have been measured;for example, when a beam on a structural framing plan has been measured, the beam is coloured; when the finishes inside a room have been measured, the area inside the room is coloured
      计算了图示物体后随即在物体的图像上着色;例如:结构平面图上的樑量了,樑就着色;房间内的饰面量了,房间内的面积就着色
    • Either the area or the perimeter may be coloured
      可填满空间或着边框
    • The same colour should be consistently used for the same kind of materials or construction; for example, red colour is used to colour brick walls and green colour is used to colour concrete walls
      不同物体有系统地用不同颜色;例如:砖墙用红色,混凝土墙用绿色
    • Shades or crosses can be used in case the number of colours available is not sufficient
      颜色不够用可用斜纹格线等帮助
  2. Colouring helps: 
    着了色的图纸:
    • Tracing and distinguishing those measured from those not yet measured
      帮助追踪及分别已计算及未计算的
    • Checking visually that the extent measured is correct
      帮助检视计算的范围有没有错
    • Creating a little bit of fun when measuring
      对苦闷的计量工作增加一点情趣
    • If this practice is maintained, then if a certain part of a Drawing has not been coloured, it would readily mean that it has not yet been measured
      若按此习惯,未着色的地方即未量度
  3. Therefore, it is important that the Drawings should not be coloured before measurement, since one may easily forget that he has not yet measured the coloured parts. 
    因此,应避免计量前便着了色,因为这样很容易忘记了实在没量已着色的部份
  4. If a Drawing is full of texts, lines and figures and is too condensed that some advance colouring is desirable to help reading the Drawings, then partial colouring or colouring the boundary only should be adopted before measurement. After measurement, the full colouring is put in to signify completion of measurement
    若图纸满是文字、线条及图样并且太密集,的确需要预先着色方便看图,则可用局部着色或边框着色的方法预先着色,在量完以后才全部着色
  5. When a thing shown on the Drawings is to be measured several times for different things, e.g. measuring concrete and formwork first and then reinforcement later, then use partial colouring to indicate different phases of measurement
    若图示物体需按不同的东西量几次,例如,先量混凝土及模板再量钢筋,可用局部着色的方法表示量到不同阶段
  6. Example 图例:

Lining through notes on Drawings
图纸说明上画线

  1. Notes and annotations on Drawings should be taken into consideration in the measurement or writing BQ descriptions
    图纸上的文字说明及标签应反映在工程量的计算或分项说明内
  2. As soon as this is done, a note or an annotation should be lined through
    有关资料已获反映,随即在上面画线以表示
  3. Example of lining through:
    画线的图例:
  4. Lining through should be done by lining along the notes and annotations using coloured pencils in bright colours, e.g. yellow or orange. Dark colours which may cover up the notes or annotations should not be used
    应随句子长度画线,使用鲜明的木颜色笔,例如黄色或橙色。不要用遮盖了文字的深颜色
  5. Fountain pens, ball pens or felt pens, which use permanent ink, should not be used since they appear to be crossing out the Annotations and figures in a permanent manner
    不应使用钢笔、圓珠筆、氈筆等使用永久墨水的笔,因为它们给人永久删掉有关资料的感觉
  6. Coloured pencils should be used because any wrong marking can be erased, but marking of useful information should not use easily erasible coloured pencils
    应使用木颜色笔,因涂错了仍可擦掉,但不要用太容易擦掉的木颜色笔在图上标示有用的资料
  7. Fountain pens, ball pens or felt pens should be reserved for making permanent changes on Drawings. Red ink should be used
    钢笔、圓珠筆、氈筆等应保留给表示永久修改之用。应使用红色墨水
  8. Upon completion of taking-off, the presence of any note or annotation on Drawings but not yet lined through may mean that they have not yet been taken into account
    量度完成时,仍有文字说明或标签未画线的,表示还未反映在工程量的计算或分项说明内
  9. Some objects on Drawings may have repeating annotations on the same Drawings, e.g. a reinforcement bar may be annotated more than once. When the object has been measured, the first annotation is to be lined through. When the next repeating annotation is encountered, instead of lining through, a loop may be drawn over it to signify that the object has already been measured once and this annotation is not measured again. Such practice will help ensure that the same object will not be measured more than twice
    有些图象可能重复出现标签,例如,钢筋可能多次标签。就同一个图象重复出现的标签,第一个可画线,其他则打圈,以避免及表示没有重复计算
  10. Example of looping:
    打圈的图例:

Superseded Drawings
取代了的图纸

  • Drawings superseded should be marked with the words "SUPERSEDED" at conspicuous location on the Drawings, usually against the drawing number
    取代了的图纸: 在明显的地方盖章或手写"取代了"或在图号上打交叉
  • Superseded Drawings which have not been used should be thrown away
    未用过的图纸,没有保留价值的可丢掉
  • For superseded Drawings which have been used and have information marked on, the information should be transferred to the updated Drawings before throwing away the superseded Drawings
    已用过的图纸,与新版核对时,把着色的资料转移到新图上,才丢掉
  • If there are a lot of information marked on the superseded Drawings, the superseded Drawings should be kept and stapled at the back of the updated Drawings
    若旧图已着色的资料太多,而新图的修改只是很少,则把新旧图钉在一起使用

BQ Drawings
"计量图纸"或"工程量清单图纸"

  1. The Drawings actually used for taking-off are called "Taking-off Drawings" or "BQ Drawings"
    即真正是用了来计量的图纸
  2. The BQ Drawings should become the Tender Drawings
    ​应采纳为"招标图纸"

Tender Drawings and Contract Drawings
招标图纸及合同图纸

  1. Upon completion of taking-off, the Drawing Register should be checked against the Drawings actually used for taking-off and the Register can be transformed to a Schedule of Tender Drawings showing a consolidated list of the drawing numbers, titles and the last dates of receipt. Such Schedule of Tender Drawings will be included in the Tender Documents for the reference of the Tenderers and the Drawings so listed will become the Contract Drawings
    招标时,"工程量清单图纸"应成为"招标图纸"
    可真正发给投标者
    或不发出,但可在指定地点供投标者检阅
    招标文件应有图纸目录列明,作为投标及订合同的依据
    招标图纸在投标后订合同时应成为合同图纸
  2. Theoretically, the contents of Tender Drawings actually issued to Tenderers for tendering or made available for Tenderers to inspect should be the same as those used for taking-off and listed in the Schedule of Tender Drawings, and the contents of Contract Drawings actually bound should be the same as the Tender Drawings. However, because the Architects and Engineers may still be making changes during the course of taking-off through the construction stage, it is very usual that the contents of Contract Drawings are more up-to-date than Tender Drawings which are more up-to-date than those used for taking-off
    招标图纸理应等如工程量清单图纸
    合同图纸理应等如招标图纸
    但有时在发图给计量到发图给招标到订合同这段时间,设计方往往继续改图,但又没有留底。使到合同图不等如招标图不等如工程量清单图纸
  3. Theoretically, the Architects and Engineers should make sufficient copies of the Drawings issued to the Quantity Surveyors as reserve for use as Tender Drawings and sufficient copies of Tender Drawings for use as Contract Drawings. However, this is often forgotten. In practice, the BQ Drawings instead of the Tender Drawings or Contract Drawings are used for measuring omissions for variations
    结算时,应以工程量清单图纸为准
  4. With the popular use of CAD software, the discrepancy could be eliminated by making backup copies of the CAD files. Of course, co-ordination by the Quantity Surveyors with the Architects and Engineers and co-operation from them are required