Procurement Strategy 採購策略

Why Contract Out? Why Call for Tenders?

  1. Find someone to do it for you
  2. Someone:
    • More capable
    • Statutorily qualified
    • Less costly
  3. Accountability in case of joint venture

When to Decide?

  • As early as when the first project programme is developed

Which Types of Contractual Arrangement?

  • Traditional or special?

Choices of Contract Types based on
合同形式的選擇

Contract Scope
按承包範圍分

  1. Design
    設計
  2. Build
    施工
  3. Design and build
    設計和施工
    • 優點:
      • 工程太簡單不必請建築或工程師。
      • 取得承包方特有而一般的建築或工程師沒有的特殊設計優點。
      • 取得承包方特有的建造方法或產品。
      • 設計及施工時間可重疊,相應縮短了工期。
      • 總的來說可省一些設計費。
      • 由承包方單一負責,而減少多方參與責任不清的程度。有時這個好處被視為最大優點,使到根本不存在上述2及3點的工程都採用。
      • 總造價較有保証。
      • 可規定成品能滿足意向功能,此乃高於一般只需行使合理技能的標準。
      • 在全包的情況下,承包方的索賠機會較少。
    • 缺點:
      • 發包方的要求寫得太死,承包方沒有自由設計的空間。
      • 發包方的要求寫得太鬆,不能表達到預期的成果,或有空間給承包方索賠。
      • 發包方不能隨意改動要求。
      • 發包方對設計的改動要求,是屬於原要求範圍內還是超出範圍,往往會有爭議。
      • 真的超出範圍而需計算增加費用時,因可能要與一個尚未設計好便改動了的方案比較,難度比較大。減內容亦有類似的問題。
      • 鑑於總造價是基本封頂的,發包方會傾向在具體設計時增加內容及取最高的標準,令承包方吃虧。
      • 鑑於總造價是基本封頂的,承包方會傾向在具體設計時盡量省料及取最低的標準,令發包方吃虧。
      • 雙方合作不愉快時,爭議反為多了。
  4. Design, build and operate
    設計、施工、營運
  5. Management contracting
  6. Construction manager

Pricing Basis
按投標基礎分

  1. Based on firm bills of quantities, with reference to drawings and specification
    按確定工程量清單,參閲圖紙及規範
  2. Based on provisional bills of quantities, with reference to drawings and specification
    按暫定工程量清單,參閲圖紙及規範
  3. Based on drawings and specification, without bills of quantities
    只按圖紙及規範,不含工程量清單
  4. Based on pre-priced schedule of rates, competing on adjustment percentage
    按預設單價表,競爭調整費率

Pricing Nature
按標價形式分

  1. Lump sum total, with unit rates
    總價報價,輔以單價
  2. Rates only, without total
    單價報價,無總價
  3. Percentage
    費率報價

Degree of Risks
按風險程度分

  1. Fixed price
    固定價
  2. Price with fluctuation
    可調價
  3. Cost plus fee (lump sum fee, fixed percentage fee, scaled percentage fee, sharing)
    成本加服務費(一筆過、固定費率、遞減費率、分成)
  4. Ceiling price / Guaranteed maximum price
    封頂價
  5. Demarcation between Costs and Fees 
    成本與服務費的劃分

Funding Arrangement

  1. All funded by the employer
  2. Private finance initiative – public-private partnerships

How to Package Contracts?

  1. Optimum balance between the time required to complete every design and the time required to construct
  2. Optimum balance between single line responsibility and more control over choosing sub-contractors and suppliers
  3. Specialist works by specialist contractors/sub-contractors
  4. Responsibility for delivery time and wastage to be watched out if nominated supply contracts are used

Usual Contract Packaging
總包分包的分拆

  1. Demolition Contract
    拆卸工程
  2. Piling Contract
    基樁
  3. Main Contract
    主合同
  4. Sub-Contract
    分包合同
  5. Supply Contract
    供應合同
  6. Other Direct Contracts
    其他獨立合同

Which Form of Contract?

  1. Private or public?
  2. Domestic or international?
  3. Standard form or specially drafted?
  4. Old or new versions?
  5. With how much amendments?
  6. How harsh?

 Form of Contract

Risks Sharing
風險的分擔

  1. Soil conditions
    土質
  2. Underground obstructions
    地下障礙物
  3. Phased possession of site and completion
    分階段交付工地及竣工
  4. Time for completion
    工期
  5. Liquidated damages
    誤期賠償
  6. Grounds for extension of time
    工期延長的許可原因
  7. Grounds for monetary claims
    索賠的許可原因
  8. Insurances and bonds
    保險及擔保
  9. Defects liability period / defects rectification period
    保修期
  10. Payment terms
    付款辦法