Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Control 施工合約前的成本計畫及控制

Table of Contents

Principal Tasks during the Pre-Contract Stage
施工合約前的主要工作

  1. Preparing Cost Estimates
    編製估算概算
  2. Preparing Cash Flow Tables
    編製資金流量表
  3. Attending Design Meetings
    參與設計會議
  4. Monitoring the Design
    設計監控
  5. Adjusting the Cost Estimates and Reconciling
    估算概算調整及檢討
  6. Comparing alternatives
    替代方案的比較

Need for Pre-construction Estimates
為何需要概算

  1. Knowing the costs for investment decisions: 
    知道成本造價以作投資決定
    • Calculating land bid price 
      計算買地投標價
    • Calculating acceptable rental 
      計算可接受的租金
    • Evaluating the feasibility of the investment 
      評估投資的可行性
  2. Establishing a project (development) budget 
    確定發展項目的投資預算
  3. Formulating a design brief which defines the scope and standard of the project 
    制定設計任務書,說明發展項目的範圍及標準
  4. Obtaining funding 
    獲取撥款
  5. Borrowing money from the bank 
    向銀行貸款
  6. Monitoring the design development to control the costs within budget 
    監控設計的深化以控制不超出投資預算
  7. Estimating fees 
    估算顧問費

Best Time to Plan and Control the Costs
造價控制的最佳時機

  1. As early as possible during the development process 
    在項目發展階段中越早越好
  2. Better chances to make design changes to find a better solution 
    較有機會修改設計取得更好的方案
  3. To reduce abortive design costs 
    減少設計返工

Different names of pre-construction cost estimates
概算的不同名稱

  1. Preliminary Indication of Costs 
    初步估算指標
  2. Preliminary Cost Estimates 
    概算
  3. Elemental Cost Estimate 
    功能分部概算
  4. Rough Indication of Costs 
    大約估算
  5. Cost Plans 
    成本計畫
  6. Cost Models (An American term) 
    成本模型 (美式用詞)
  7. Pre-tender Estimate 
    標底

Cost Estimate, Cost Plan and Budget
概算、成本計畫及投資預算

  1. A Cost Estimate reflects the estimated costs of a current design 
    概算反映某個現有設計的估計造價
  2. A Cost Plan is a detailed cost framework for controlling future design 
    成本計畫乃控制將來設計的詳細造價框架
  3. A Budget is the maximum sum a Developer is willing and able to spend on a project 
    投資預算乃建設單位願意及有能力投資於某項目的最大金額
  4. A Cost Estimate for now, if satisfactory and approved, will become the Cost Plan for the future design 
    現行的概算(若滿意及獲批准) 便作為將來設計的成本計畫

Ways to Calculate the Cost Estimates
計算概算的方法

  1. Estimates should be done using expedient methods, approximations and shortcuts to reduce estimating time and costs in order to afford more estimates 
    概算應以便捷的方法、框算和捷徑以減少編製的時間及費用以便能多做概算

  2. Cost per floor area estimates 
    按樓面積計算

  3. Cost estimates prepared by measuring the most significant cost parameters 
    按最有效應的造價參數計算

  4. Cost estimates prepared by measuring elemental quantities 
    按功能分部工程量計算

  5. Cost estimates prepared by measuring approximate quantities 
    按分項大約工程量計算

  6. Cost estimates prepared by pricing the bills of quantities ready for issuance or already issued for tendering 
    按工程量清單計算

Estimating Motto
四字真言

  1. From big to small 
    由大到小

  2. From rough to fine 
    從粗到細

  3. Focusing on the important 
    重點出擊

  4. Making bold assumptions 
    大膽假設

  5. Verifying carefully 
    小心求証

  6. Comparing with the unlike 
    觸類旁通

  7. Conducting self checking 
    自我覆核

  8. Reconciling with the previous 
    瞻前顧後

  9. Empathizing with the Client 
    設身處地

Cost Parameters
造價參數

  1. Floor Area 
    樓面面積

  2. Ground Area and Roof Area 
    地、屋面面積

  3. External Elevation Area 
    外立面面積

  4. External Area 
    室外面積

  5. Number of equipment 
    台數

  6. Refrigeration Tonnage 
    冷噸

  7. Other elemental quantities 
    其他功能分部工程量

Cost Geometry
造價幾何

  1. Appreciating which cost portions should bear more direct proportions to each parameter 
    瞭解那部份的成本內容與那個造價參數有較直接的比例關係

    Without basement

    Basement

  2. Appreciating how changes in the size and shape of a building would change the cost proportions 
    瞭解樓宇的大小及形狀的變化如何影響造價的分佈

Building up Composite Rates
組合單價的測算

  1. Using composite rates to simplify measurement of details
    用組合單價來簡化細項的計算

  2. Allowance in quantities or rates for unmeasured items
    數量或單價內要考慮不另行計算的內容

Source of Data
資料來源

  1. Quantity Factors: 
    ​含量
    • Other Projects 
      其他工程
    • Analysis by sampling 
      ​抽樣測算
  2. Rates: 
    ​單價
    • Tender Prices 
      投標價
    • Final Account Prices 
      結算價
    • New Enquiries
      詢價
  3. Cost Analysis of Other Projects 
    其他工程項目的造價分析

Element
功能分部

  1. An element is a part of a building which serves the same function for different buildings irrespective of the materials and design used, and which costs can easily be separated from others 
    功能分部乃樓宇內不論所用的材料或設計是什麽通常都是在不同的樓宇有同一功能的組成部份,而其計價可容易與其他部份分開的
  2. Classifying the costs of a building (or other construction) into elements would facilitate: 
    ​把樓宇(或其他建設)的造價按功能分部分拆可利於:
    • Comparison of the costs of different design options serving the same elemental function 
      達到同一功能的不同設計方案按功能分部的造價比較
    • Comparison with costs of other projects by elements; 
      按功能分部與其他發展項目的造價比較
    • Rationalizing the budget allocation between different elements for better use 
      把投資按不同功能分部更合理地分配使用
    • Quicker estimating based on elemental quantities which are easier to measure 
      使用較易計算的功能分部數量加快估算
    • Analysis of data for different projects on the same basis and classification 
      以同一的基準及分類分析不同項目的資料
  3. Different QS practices and ArchSD have different elemental classifications 
    不同的測量師事務所及建築署有不同的功能分部分類方法

Element groups (example)
功能分部裙組(例子)

Builder’s Works / Structure and Fabric
樓房土建 / 結構及框架

  1. Foundation piling
    基樁
  2. Foundations
    基礎
  3. Basement bottom and sides
    地下室底板及外牆
  4. Structure
    結構
  5. External Elevations (External Walls, External Wall Finishes, Windows, Curtain Walls)
    外立面(外牆、外飾面、窗、幕牆)
  6. Internal Walls and Partitions
    內間斷
  7. Doors
  8. Roller Shutters and Fire Shutters
    捲簾
  9. Roof Finishes
    屋面

Finishes and Fittings
樓房裝飾

  1. Floor Finishes
    樓地面
  2. Internal Wall Finishes
    內牆面
  3. Ceiling Finishes
    天棚
  4. Signs, Fixtures and Sundries
    標誌、固定裝置、雜項
  5. Furniture
    傢具
  6. Sanitary Fittings
    潔具
  7. Lighting Fittings
    燈具

Building Services
樓房機電安裝

  1. Water Supply
    給水
  2. Above-ground Drainage
    地上排水
  3. Fire Services
    消防
  4. Sewage Treatment
    污水處理
  5. Pool Filtration Plant
    泳池過濾系統
  6. Fountain
    噴泉
  7. Gas
    燃氣
  8. Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning
    暖通空調
  9. Electrical
    電氣
  10. Security, Telephone and Public Address
    保安、電話及廣播系統
  11. Lifts
    電梯
  12. Escalators
    電扶梯
  13. Gondola
    擦窗機
  14. Turntable
    旋轉台
  15. Kitchen Equipment
    廚房設備
  16. Special Equipment
    特殊設備

Site and External Works
前期及外圍工程

  1. Demolition
    拆卸工程
  2. Site Formation
    場地平整
  3. Retaining Structures
    擋土牆
  4. Dewatering
    降水
  5. Underground Drainage
    地下排水
  6. Utilities
    機電主管道
  7. Boundary Walls
    圍牆
  8. Ancillary Structures
    構築物
  9. External Paving
    路面
  10. Landscaping
    園林綠化

Profits and Attendance on Sub-Contractors and Suppliers
分包管理配合費

Preliminaries
開辦經營費

Design Contingencies / Design Development Allowance
設計深化增項預留費

Construction Contingencies
施工不可預見費

Developer’s Soft Costs
建設單位其他費用

  1. Land Costs and Premium
    地價及土地使用費
  2. Evacuation Costs
    拆遷補償費
  3. Costs of Capacity Upgrading, Diversion, Connection and Installation of Utilities
    市政增容費、改道費、接駁費及初裝費
  4. Work outside the Site Boundaries
    紅線外工程費
  5. Production and Process Equipment, Supermarket Stalls, Showcases
    生產工藝設備、超市貨架、專櫃
  6. Operating, Office and Back of House Furniture and Equipment
    營業、辦公及後勤傢俱及設備
  7. Survey and Design Fees, Expenses and Site Staff Costs
    勘察設計費、開支及駐現場代表費
  8. Site Supervisory Costs
    施工監理費
  9. Pre-Opening Expenses, Administration Costs and Working Capital
    開幕前費用、經營費用及流動資金
  10. Finance and Legal Expenses
    財務和法律上的費用

Contents of Cost Estimate 概算的內容

Grand Summary: 
大匯總

  1. Total Cost of Each Section of the Project 
    建設項目每區域的總造價
  2. Floor Area of Each Section 
    每區域的樓面面積
  3. Unit Cost per Floor Area 
    ​每區域的樓面面積的單價

Descriptions: 
編製說明

  1. Project Name 
    項目名稱
  2. Project Location 
    項目地點
  3. Scope of the Estimate 
    估算範圍
  4. Areas: 
    面積:
    • Construction Floor Area / Covered Floor Area 
      建築面積/有蓋樓面面積
    • Ground Area 
      地面面積
    • Site Area 
      地塊面積
    • Lease Gross Floor Area 
      地契樓面面積
    • (Non-)Accountable GFA 
      可豁面/不豁面地契樓面面積
    • Bay Window Area 
      窗臺面積
  5. Basis of the Estimate:
    估算依據:
    • Drawings used 
      依據的圖紙
  6. Price Levels:
    價格水準:
    • Current Prices 
      現行價格
    • Fluctuations from Date of Preparing the Estimate to Tendering 
      由編製到招標的價格浮動
    • Fluctuations from Tendering to Completion of Construction 
      由招標到竣工的價格浮動
  7. Outline Specification of Design and Materials 
    分部設計及用料大綱
  8. Finishes Schedule 
    裝飾表
  9. Exclusions 
    不包項目

Elemental Summary of each Section: 
每區域的功能分部匯總:

  1. Floor Area of the Section 
    該區域的樓面面積
  2. Total Cost of Each Element of the Section 
    該區域的每功能分部總造價
  3. Unit Cost per Floor Area 
    每功能分部的樓面面積單價
  4. % Proportion of each Element 
    每功能分部所占百分比

Detailed Build-up: 
具體項目:

  1. Arranged by Elements 
    按功能分部排列
  2. ​Item Reference 
    編碼
  3. Descriptions 
    子目說明
  4. Quantities, rounded off to tens or thousands 
    拾位元或百位元整數的數量
  5. Rates, round off to two significant figures 
    兩個有效數字的單價
  6. Extension, rounded off 
    萬位元整數的合價
  7. Elemental Totals 
    功能分部總價

Possible additional information: 
可能的附加資料:

  1. Elemental Quantities
    功能分部數量
  2. Unit Costs per Elemental Quantities 
    ​功能分部單價

Rates 單價

Adjustments to Published Unit Costs per Floor Area

  1. Some Consultant QS firms publish unit costs per floor area for public information
  2. When using these unit costs, care should be exercised to understand the scope of inclusions and exclusions, and their applicability
  3. The General Practice Division of the Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors has published a Building Cost Pro-Forma for Private Sector Developments in Hong Kong.pdf
  4. This should serve as a useful checklist, but the items and figures suggested there should be verified for individual project

Preparing Cash Flow Tables 編製資金流量表

  1. Using S-curve:
    用S線圖:
    • Divide the horizontal axis into parts equal to the number of months of construction
      將水平軸按施工的月份數目分段
    • For each month, interpolate from the curve the cumulative payment percentage on the vertical axis
      利用曲線找出每個月在垂直軸相對的累計進度百份率
    • Find the monthly payment percentages from the cumulative percentages; and
      用累計進度百份率計出每月進度百份率
    • Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost to obtain the monthly payment values
      每月進度百份率乘總造價得出每月進度款
  2. Using Bar Chart Programmes:
    用條形進度計畫表:
    • Following the bar chart programme, assign the monthly payment percentages for each activity bar
      跟從條形進度計企劃表,對每條活動配以每月進度百份率
    • Apply the monthly payment percentages to the total cost of each activity bar to obtain the monthly payment values
      將每月進度百份率乘該條活動的造價得出每月進度款
    • Ensure that the total of each activity bar is correct
      確保每條活動的合計無誤
  3. Separating stage payments
    要把分期付款及大型採購分列
  4. Separating Retention
    要把保修金分列
  5. Watching out time lag between work carried out, payment certification and honouring of payment
    注意施工、批款及付款的時間差

Reconciliation
概算變化的解釋

  1. Presented vertically: 
    垂直列出:
  2. Presented side by side: 
    並排表示:

Pre-tender Estimate
標底

  1. Pricing the Bills of Quantities before formal issue of tender documents or before return of tenders 
    在發出招標檔前或在回標前利用工程量清單套取單價計價
  2. To check whether the cost so priced is within the previous estimate and the Budget 
    以檢查得出的總價是否仍在前概算或投資預算之內
  3. Making design changes and issuing tender addendum to keep the costs within the Budget 
    作出設計修改並發出招標檔變更通知以便維持造價在投資預算之內
  4. For checking against tenders returned for reasonableness 
    用作評核回標價的合理性