Estimating and Pricing 估算及套單價

Cost and Price
成本與造價

  1. “Cost” and “Price” often used interchangeably
    ”成本” 與 ”造價” 常常互通使用

  2. Between the two parties to a transaction, the price to the Seller/ Contractor is the cost to the Buyer/Employer
    就某個交易而言,賣方/承包方的造價即買方/發包方的成本
  3. For the same party, Cost + Profit = Price.
    就同一方而言,成本+利潤 = 造價

Source of Data
資料來源

  1. Rates:
    單價:
    • Tender Prices
      投標價
    • Final Account Prices 
      結算價
    • New Enquiries. 
      詢價
  2. Cost Analysis of Other Projects 
    其他工程項目的造價分析

Rate Build-up
單價組成

  1. Labour costs:
    ​人工費:
    • Daily rates to include for daily basic wage, travelling and meal allowances, allowances for hand tools and personal accessories, allowances for holidays with pay, MPF contribution, year end bonus, incentive payments, levies and insurances if not priced separately, etc.
      日工單價應包括基本日工資、交通及伙食津貼、工具及個人用品津貼、有薪假期、公積金、年終獎金、鼓勵性獎金、未另行計算的政府徵費和保險、等等
    • ​Time to consider taking from stores, hoisting, lowering, placing, fixing and non-productive travelling and recess time, etc.
      ​工時應考慮從倉取料、上料、安放、安裝及非生產的交通及小息時間、等等
  2. Material costs:
    材料費:
    • Rates to include for ex-factory costs, package, export transportation, transit insurance, customs clearance and duties, demurrage, off-site storage, local delivery, returning package, off-loading, etc.
      單價應包括出廠價、包裝、出囗運輸、運輸保險、清關及關稅、清關滯留、場外儲存、當地運輸、退還包裝、卸貨、等等
    • Quantities to consider basic quantities, breakage, damage, theft, wastage (cutting, conversion), unmeasured laps, bulkage, consolidation, shrinkage, etc. 
      ​數量應考慮基本用量、破損、損壞、失竊、損耗(切割剪裁、加工) 、不另計的搭接、膨脹、收縮、等等
  3. Plant costs: 
    機械費:
    • Use of plant
      機械使用費
    • Mobilization, relocation and demobilization, if not measured separately
      機械進場、中間移位、退場運輸費(若未有另項計算) 
    • Fuels and consumables
      燃料及耗料費
    • Maintenance and repair
      維修保養費
    • Unavoidable idling time
      不可避免的閒置費
  4. Site overheads
    現場管理費
  5. Head Office Overheads
    公司管理費
  6. Profit
    利潤
  7. Tax if charged based on total price
    按總價計取的稅金
  8. Rates build-up applicable to measured work as well as preliminaries
    單價組成適用於實物工程量及開辦經營費

Reasons for Cost Variances
造價差異原因

  1. Design: 
    設計:
    • Functions
      功能
    • Materials and Construction
      材料及實體
    • Standard
      檔次
  2. Site Location: 
    ​選址:
    • Transportation
      交通
    • Restrictions
      ​限制
  3. Construction: 
    施工:
    • Project Size
      工程大少
    • Extent of Mechanization
      機械化程度
    • Extent of Standardization
      標準化程度
    • Extent of Repetition
      重複程度
    • Extent of Pre-fabrication
      預製程度
    • Volume of Bulk Purchasing
      ​採購量
    • Workmanship
      工藝
    • Weather
      天氣
  4. Economic Environment: 
    經濟環境:
    • Level of Market Competition
      市場競爭程度
    • Exchange Rates
      匯率
    • Time Differences
      時間差

Indices for Adjusting for Time Differences
時間調整指數

  1. Cost Indices
    成本指數
  2. Tender Price Indices
    造價指數

Index References
指數參考資料

  1. Census and Statistics Department - Index Numbers of the Costs of Labour and Materials used in Public Sector Construction Projects
  2. 政府統計處 - 公營建築工程的工資及材料成本指數
  3. Census and Statistic Department - Average Wholesale Prices of Selected Building Materials
  4. 政府統計處 - 特選建築材料平均批發價格
  5. Architectural Services Department - Building Works Tender Price Index
  6. 建築署 - 建築工程投標價格指數
  7. Architectural Services Department - Building Services Tender Price Index
  8. 建築署 - 屋宇設備投標價格指數
  9. Rider Levett Bucknall - Hong Kong and China Cost Reports
  10. Langdon Seah - China and Hong Kong Cost Summaries and Reviews